River case studies AS level
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. What would you like to do?
what is the case study for river flooding in an LEDC?
The 2004 floods in Bangladesh
What is the case study for river flooding in an MEDC?
The 2005 floods of the River Severn, Cumbria, UK
Which case study location has the highest population density in the world?
What were the human causes to the river flooding in Bangladesh?
- irrigation and sedimentation
- Lack of effective drainage system
What were the physical causes to the river flooding in Bangladesh?
- Rising sea levels
- Onshore winds
- 80% of country is a drainage basin
- extremely low lying
- Spring snow melt increasing river discharge
How much of Bangladesh is less than 12m above sea level?
Less than 50%
What were the social effects of the Bangladesh floods?
- -People attempting to build houses on stilts to avoid damage in future
- -50 million people who live on floodplain struggle to protect themselves
- -Outbreak of waterborne diseases
- -Regular displacement of people forces transient lifestyles and incomplete education for children
The population of Bangladesh was around 125 million at the time of the floods in 2004. How many of these people were left homeless as a result of the flood?
36 million out of 125 milion left homeless after 2004 floods
How many people died as a result of the floods in Bangladesh?
What were the political effects of the 2004 floods in Bangladesh?
- National Disaster Management Council (lead by Prime Minister) began to have regular meetings to assess the situation
- Government welcomed international assistance from the UN and NGOs.
What were the environmental effects of the 2004 floods in Bangladesh?
- Increased levels of erosion to the alluvium that Bangladesh is made from
- Chars (deposited blocks of land) form in rivers. This new land may be habitable and creates new opportunities for those who are homeless
What were the economic effects of the 2004 floods in Bangladesh?
- No paid work during rainy/flooded areas
- Lack of resources
- Reduced opportunity for export
- Damage to infrastructure such as roads and bridges (transportation reduced)
- Crops destroyed
What were the long term effects of the Bangladesh floods?
- Farm owners lost income and produce
- River bank erosion (particularity in urban areas)
- Increased disease risk
- Factories closed, companies don't want to work with unreliable places
What were the human causes to the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- Ineffective flood barriers
What were the physical causes of the January 2005 floods in Cumbria? (5)
- Heavy and continuous rain in December 2004
- Air passing over mountains cools, dropping moisture
- 34 hours of continuous rain, 378mm fell (usually takes 7 months for that much to fall)
- Storms caused river blockages (trees falling in them etc)
- Drainage of upland bogs
What were the short term social effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria? (9)
- 3 people died
- 70,000 without power for 3 days
- Rail services cut
- Schools closed
- Criminal evidence in police station lost
- Fire station flooded
- Schools and pubs providing food and hot drinks
- RAF and Coastguard evacuating people via helicopter
- Damage to property
What were the short term political effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- Emergency response HQ relocated
- Magistrates court flooded and relocated
What were the short term environmental effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- Environment Agency issued flood warning and set up flood line
- 1,150 fallen trees in the gales
- 1,600 homes flooded at a cost of £100 million
What were the medium term social effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- Firefighters clean up station and return to it
- Schools closed until deemed safe, operating on a split shift system
- One suicide by uninsured householder
- Increase in cases of depression
- Police using mobile unit and temporary offices
What were the medium term political effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- Emergency repairs to flood defences issued
- New bus fleet to be bought
What were the medium term environmental effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
Emergency repairs to flood defences carried out
What were the medium term economic effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- shortage of rental properties
- 50 new buses purchased
- shortage of second hand cars
- concerns as to morgage and insurance avaliability
What were the medium term demographic effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
Builders and flood restoration firms drafted into the city of Carlisle which boosted B+B trade
What were the long term social effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria? (4)
- Rebuilding of schools
- Rebuilding of police station
- Plans to alter and improve city centre
- Flood victims still in temporary housing a year or more later
What were the long term political effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
Political groups appealing to people's desire to improve flood defences and may therefor get votes they might not have otherwise gotten
What were the short term economic effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- 70 buses lost worth £3 million
- Industrial estates flooded, damaging 325 businesses at an estimated cost of £100 million
- Shops shut in city of Carlisle
What were the short term demographic effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
6,000 people had to be rehomed because they of displacement
What were the long term environmental effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- damage to land
- damage to farms
- damage to habitats and ecosystems
What were the long term economic effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
- Complete flood defence restoration costing £20 million
- Family firms closed down
- increases in household and car insurance for people in Carlisle postcodes
What were the long term demographic effects of the 2005 floods in Cumbria?
People moving to other areas of the country to avoid future flooding
What is the case study for hard engineering/ flood management on a river in an LEDC?
Three Gorges Dam, Yangtze River, China
Since the installation of the Dam, how often is a major flood expected?
1 in every 100 years (as opposed to 1 in 10)
How much of China's electricity does the Three Gorges Dam generate?
Has the building of the Three gorges dam increased or decreased shipping on the river Yangtze?
Increased it as bigger ships can travel up river better due to deeper reservoir
What are the social disadvantages to the building of the Three Gorges Dam?
- 1.2 million had to be moved
- Cultural monuments lost
- 13 cities and 1392 villages destroyed
What are the environmental disadvantages to the building of the Three Gorges Dam?
- 50% more erosion downstream of dam
- Increased likelihood of landslides in immediate area
- Habitats destroyed (such as white flag dolphin)
- Salmon migration prevented
- Increased flood risk in tributaries due to rising reservoir levels
What was the cost to build the Three Gorges dam?
When was the Three Gorges dam completed?
- completed in 2009
- work started 2003
What is the case study for soft engineering/ river restoration?
River Skerne, Darlington, UK
What are the characteristics of the River Skerne?
- High sediment load
- Slow moving
- Overgrown banks
- Factory sewage discharged into river
- Urbanised floodplain
What is the aim of the restoration project on the River Skerne?
To improve the quality of the river without reducing its effectiveness as a flood defense
How has the River Skerne been restored? (5)
- New meanders created in river
- Sloping banks introduced as opposed to vertical banks
- Wetland plants planted on inside of meander bend
- Trees and reeds planted to strengthen riverbanks
- Water quality from factories improved
- Native plants planted to encourage rich+diverse insect population
How has the restoration scheme on the River Skerne affected the river?
- Landscape has been improved
- River is more natural
How much of the River Skerne underwent restoration?
2km, the most densely populated residential and industrail section
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