BIO-1120: Chapter 13

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UndependableAids
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292149
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BIO-1120: Chapter 13
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2014-12-28 13:49:05
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Biology
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BIO-1120
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  1. Alteration of Generations
    a life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae
  2. Asexual Reproduction
    the generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes (by budding, division of a single cell, or division of the entire organism into two or more parts); in most cases, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent
  3. Clone
    (1) a lineage of genetically identical individuals or cells; (2) in popular usage, an individual that is genetically identical to another individual; (3) as a verb, to make one or more genetic replicas of an individual or cell
  4. Gene
    a discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
  5. Genetics
    the scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
  6. Heredity
    the transmission of traits from one generation to the next
  7. Locus
    a specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located
  8. Meiosis
    a modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication; it results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell
  9. Meiosis I
    the first division of a two-stage process of cell division sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the number of chromosomes set as the original cell
  10. Meiosis II
    the second division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell
  11. Recombinant Chromosomes
    a chromosome created when crossing over combines DNA from two parents into a single chromosome
  12. Sexual Reproduction
    a type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have unique combinations of genes inherited from both parents via the gametes
  13. Somatic Cell
    any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg or their precursors
  14. Synapsis
    the pairing and physical connection of duplicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
  15. Synaptonemal Complex
    a zipper-like structure composed of proteins, which connects two homologous chromosomes tightly along their lengths
  16. Variation
    differences between members of the same species

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