BIO-1120: Chapter 14

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UndependableAids
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BIO-1120: Chapter 14
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2014-12-31 13:52:39
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Biology
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  1. Addition Rule
    a rule of probability stating that the probability of any one of two or more mutually exclusive events occurring can be determined by adding their individual probabilities
  2. Allele
    any of the alternative versions of a gene that may produce distinguishable phenotypic effects
  3. Amniocentesis
    a technique associated with prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid is obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus; the fluid and the fetal cells it contains are analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus
  4. Carrier
    in genetics, an individual who is heterozygous at a given genetic locus for a recessively inherited disorder; the heterozygote is generally phenotypically normal for the disorder but can pass on the recessive allele to offspring
  5. Character
    an observable heritable feature that may vary among individuals
  6. Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
    a technique associated with prenatal diagnosis in which a small sample of the fetal portion of the placenta is removed for analysis to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus
  7. Codominance
    the situation in which the phenotypes of both alleles are exhibited in the heterozygote because both alleles affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
  8. Complete Dominance
    the situation in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable
  9. Cystic Fibrosis
    a human genetic disorder caused by a recessive allele for a chloride channel protein; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated
  10. Dihybrid
    an organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest; all of the offspring from a cross between parents doubly homozygous for different alleles are dihybrids; for example, parents of genotypes AABB and aabb produce a dihybrid of genotype AaBb
  11. Dihybrid Cross
    a cross between two organisms that are each heterozygous for both of the characters being followed (or the self-pollination of a plant that is heterozygous for both characters
  12. Dominant Allele
    an allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a hertozygote
  13. Epistasis
    a type of gene interaction in which the phenotypic expression of one gene alters that of another independently inherited gene
  14. F1 Generation
    the first filial, hybrid (heterozygous) offspring arising from a parental (P generation) cross
  15. F2 Generation
    the offspring resulting from interbreeding (or self-pollination) of the hybrid F1 Generation
  16. Genotype
    the genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism
  17. Heterozygous
    having two different alleles for a given gene
  18. Homozygous
    having two identical alleles for a given gene
  19. Huntington's Disease
    a human genetic disease caused by a dominant allele; characterized by uncontrollable body movements and degeneration of the nervous system; usually fatal 10 to 20 years after onset of symptoms
  20. Hybridization
    in genetics, the mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding varieties
  21. Incomplete Dominance
    the situation in which the phenotype of heterozygotes is intermediate between the phenotypes of individuals homozygous for either allele
  22. Law of Independent Assortment
    Mendel's second law, stating that each pair of alleles segregates, or assorts, independently of each other pairs of homologous chromosomes or when they are far enough apart on the same chromosome to behave as though they are on different chromosomes
  23. Law of Segregation
    Mendel's first law, stating that the two alleles in a pair of segregate (separate from each other) into different gametes during gamete formation
  24. Monohybrid
    an organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest; all the offspring from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles are monohyrbids; for example, parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid of genotype Aa
  25. Monohybrid Cross
    a cross between two organisms that are heterozygous for the character being followed (or the self-pollination of a heterozygous plant)
  26. Multifactorial
    referring to a phenotypic character that is influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors
  27. Multiplication Rule
    a rule of probability stating that the probability of two or more indepedent events occurring together can bee determined by multiplying their individual probabilities
  28. Pedigree
    a diagram of a famaily tree with conventional symbols, showing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations
  29. P Generation
    the true-breeding (homozygous) parent individuals from which F1 hybrid offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; P stands for "parental"
  30. Phenotype
    the observable physical and physiological traits of an organism, which are determined by its genetic makeup
  31. Pleiotrophy
    the ability of a single gene to have multiple effects
  32. Polygenic Inheritance
    an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character
  33. Punnett Square
    a diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the predicted genotypic results of random fertilization in genetic crosses between individuals of know genotype
  34. Quantitative Character
    a heritable feature that varies continuously over a range rather than in an either-or fashion
  35. Recessive Allele
    an allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote
  36. Sickle-Cell Disease
    a recessively inherited human blood disorder in which a single nucleotide change in the β-globin gene causes hemoglobin to aggregate, changing the red blood cell shape and causing multiple symptoms in afflicted individuals
  37. Tay-Sachs Disease
    a human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele for a dysfunctional enzyme, leading to accumulation of certain lipids in the brain; seizures, baldness, and degeneration of motor and mental performance usually become manifest a few months after birth, followed by death with a few years
  38. Testcross
    breeding an organism of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype; the ration of phenotypes in the offpsring reveals the unknown genotype
  39. Trait
    one of two or more detectable variants in a genetic character
  40. True-Breeding
    referring to organisms that produce offspring of the same variety over many generations of self-pollination

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