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What type of organism is a cholera bacterium? And what is its structure?
- 1) Prokaryotic
- 2) Cell wall, Cell-surface membrane, Capsule, Circular DNA, flagella and plasmid.
How does the Cholera bacterium cause severe diarrhoea?
- 1) producing a toxin which increases the secretion of chloride ions into the lumen of the intestine.
- 2)The loss of chloride ions from the epithelial cells in the small intestine raises the water potential, so water rushes into the lumen.
How is Cholera treated?
- 1) Oral Rehydration Solutions
- 2) Helps water be absorbed into the body through osmosis
- 3) Contains: Water, sodium, glucose, potassium and other electrolytes.
What are the ethical issues associated with trialling Oral Rehydration Therapy?
1) Early tests led to many side effects, especially on children.
Learn the gross structure of the gas exchange system.
What is the Trachea and its function?
- 1) a flexible airway that is supported by a ring of cartilage.
- 2)Allow passage of air into the lungs/ produce mucus to move dirt away from lungs.
What is the bronchi and its function?
- 1)The two divisions of the trachea, each leading to one lung - similar structure
- 2) produce mucus to move dirt away from lungs.
What are the bronchioles and their function?
- 1) A series of branching subdivisions of the bronchi.
- 2)Their walls are made of muscle and lined with mucus
- 3) This muscle allows them to contract so that they can control the flow of air in and out of the lungs
What are the alveoli and their function?
- 1) Air sacs with a diameter of between 100 micrometers and 300 micrometers at the end of the bronchioles.
- 2) Collagen, elastic fibres and they are lined with epithelium.
- 3) The elastic fibres stretch and fill with air when breathing in - snap back after.
- 4) Is the gas-exchange surface.