Could also be played on more than one instrument (cello, bassoon etc)
Name 10 popular Baroque instruments.
When was Classical music?
What were the key differences between Classical and Baroque?
Classical contains fewer ornaments
Classical has balanced 4 bar phrases (2 bar question, 2 bar answer)
Classical had binary, rondo, ternary and variation forms but also made up sonata form
Baroque used terraced dynamics - Classical used crescendos and diminuendos
When was the piano invented?
Clarinet also invented around this time
Why was piano more preferred than the harpsichord?
Because you could perform dynamics on it
How did Classical music change the orchestra?
They got bigger
Woodwind, trumpets and horns were used more
The strings section was expanded
Describe binary form.
There are two bits of a tune
Usually used for Baroque dances
A and B should be contrasting
Often a modulation between A and B
Minor to major, Major to dominant
Give 5 examples of Baroque dances.
Describe ternary form.
There are three sections
Section A ends in the home key, usually with a perfect cadence
Section B modulates to a related key then goes back to home key before it ends
Final section, the same or slightly varied from the first
If it is varied, would be called A1 instead of A
What is an aria?
A solo in an opera or oratorio
Often used in ternary from (Baroque period)
^This type of aria is called a 'da capo aria'
How were arias used in ternary form in the Baroque period?
You would do A followed by B, where you would come to a 'da capo al fine' when you would go back and play A until you reach 'fine'
Where did Classical composers use ternary form?
The third movement is often in a ternary form called 'minuet and trio'
The trio is in a different (related) key to create contrast
They're sandwiched together to give the whole movement a ternary structure
Describe rondo form.
It can have any number of sections
The main theme is always in the home key
Each episode tends to modulate to a related key for contrast
Describe theme and variation form.
The theme is a memorable tune
Theme, short pause, first variation, short pause, second variation etc...
No limit to number of variations
Each variation should be a recognisable version of the main theme, but different to all the others
Give 8 ways you could create a variation of a theme.
Change the metre
Add a countermelody
Change the tempo
Change the key
Change some or all of the chords
Add a different type of acompaniment
What is ground bass form?
Varies ideas over a fixed bass part
Continuous, no pauses
Main theme (ground) continuously played
Varying melodies and harmonies which become more complex are played over the ground
Two types of Baroque dance which are in ground bass form (chaconne and passacaglia) which are slow and stately
What is inversion of a melody?
Turning the tune upside down
Keep the same intervals but go in the opposite direction
What is retrograde of a melody?
Playing the tune backwards
Start with the last note and go backwards until you reach the beginning
What is sequencing of a melody?
Where you repeat the pattern or the phrase but start on a different note
Handel used a descending sequence in bars 18-19 of Glory of the Lord
What is imitation of a melody?
Where you repeat a phrase but with slight changes
Bars 63-68 between the alto and tenor parts in Glory of the Lord
Bars 72-76 in Symphony No. 40 in G minor
What is ostinato?
Where you keep one pattern the same and change the rest
Basically a repetition
Doesn't have to just be in the bass line, it can be in the melody or chord pattern
It can last for more than one bar
What is the difference between a Baroque trill and a Classical trill?
Baroque begins on the note above the written note and goes quickly back and forth between these two notes
Classical begins on the written note and goes up to the note above
What is an appoggiatura?
A note which clashes with the accompanying chord
It is half the value of the following note
Note before it is usually quite a jump away
The note after is just above or below and called the resolution
Resolution has to be from the accompanying chord
Also called grace notes
Another type of grace note is called the acciaccatura, played very quickly
What is a mordent?
Starts off like a trill
They end on the written note, which is played a bit longer than the trilled notes
What is a turn?
Starts on the note above the written note then goes back to the written note, goes to the note below and back to the written note
An inverted turn starts on the note below the written note, written note, note above written note and back to written note
What is choral music?
Sung by choirs and soloists
Can be sacred or secular
Describe sacred music.
Mass - part of the catholic church service set to music
Requiem - mass for the dead
Chorale - a hymn
Oratorio - religious version of an opera, often telling bible stories
Cantata - vocal pieces made up of two or three arias, separated by recitatives
Describe secular music.
Opera - a story set to music with singing and acting. Most operas were divided up into three parts or acts. The main types of Baroque opera were....
- Opera Seria - serious, often mythical themes
- Opera buffa - lighter, more everyday themes
- Opera comique - like opera buffa but with some spoken recitatives
- Operetta - not big enough to be a proper opera
Canata - you can get secular cantatas as well
What are the three main types of song in an opera, oratorio or cantata?
What is an aria?
A solo vocal piece
Gives main characters the chance to show what they're thinking and feeling
What is a recitative?
A song which tells the story and moves it along
The rhythm of the words tend to imitate the rhythm of normal speech
What is a chorus?
Sung by the chorus (a choir)
Usually written for SATB choirs (soprano, alto, tenor, bass)
Most Baroque choirs are all male
What are oratorios?
Religious versions of operas
Often tell bible stories with a religious or moral theme
Not usually acted out with scenery and costumes
Normally have instrumental accompaniment
Can be performed in concert halls as well as churches
Who was Handel?
George Frideric Handel
Born in Germany, 1685
From about 1710, lived in England
Died in London in 1759
What was Handels most famous oratorio?
Handel wrote Messiah in 1741
Took about three weeks to compose
Became popular with audiences because of uplifting choruses
Mozart like it so much he arranged his own version of it
Originally was performed at Easter but now performed at Christmas
The text (libretto) was put together by Charles Jennens who took words from old and new testaments
How many sections are in Messiah?
First section describes the prophecies about Jesus' birth
Second section about presecution and crucifixion of Jesus
Third section about his ressurection
Describe the chorus of Messiah.
Fourth piece in the first section
Comes after an aria sung by a tenor and before a bass recitative
First chorus you hear in the oratorio
Made up of the lines- 'and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed' 'and all flesh shall see it together' 'for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it'
^These phrases are repeated throughout the piece
For most of the chorus, orchestra doubles vocal parts
Instruments often play in unison with the singers
What is the key of Messiah?
Most in A major
Modulates a few times (twice to E major and once to B major)
Some bits are polyphonic (in bars 91-107)
Piece marked allegro, quick and lively
In 3/4, but in some places feels like 2/4 (called hemiola)
Describe the first motif.
Sung by altos
Most of phrase is syllabic (each syllable has its own note)
Describe the second motif.
Intoduced by the tenors
'Be revealed' spread over a descending sequence
Syllables of 'revealed' spread over lots of notes (melismatic, opposite of syllabic)
Describe the third motif.
First sung by altos
Same bit of melody repeated three times
Describe the fourth motif.
Introduced by tenors and basses
Only motif that's introduced by two parts
Sing in unison for first 5 bars
Sing in harmony for last two bars
Most of motif on same note (A)
^This is a pedal point
Notes are quite long (minims and dotted minims)
Sounds serious and important
What cadence does Messiah end in?
Last four bars marked adagio. Much slower
Who was Orchestral music written for?
Royalty and aristocrats
Composers paid to write music for official events, church services and entertainment
Describe the orchestra in the Classical period.
At the beginning, fairly small (mainly strings, with horns, flutes and oboes)
Later on woodwind section grew. Clarinets invented
Mozart was the first to use clarinet in a symphony
Bassoons also introduced
Trumpets added to brass section
Timpani included in percussion section
At beginning there was a harpsichord but was replaced by the increasing woodwind section
Describe the roles of the instruments in the Classical orchestra.
Mostly stringed - dominant sound in most Classical music. Violins play most of the tunes
Wind play extra notes to fill out the harmonies
Occasional wind solo
Later in Classical music wind started to have a more independent role
Describe the structure of Classical music.
Short balanced two or four bar phrases
Question followed by answer
Describe the texture of Classical music.
Most Classical music has just one tune with accompanying chords. Homophonic texture
There are block chords and broken chords
Polyphony - where several tunes weave in and out of each other - sometimes used but not often
What is the tonality of the pieces of the era?
Major and minor
Classical harmony known as diatonic (nearly all the notes belong in the home key)
Describe the metre and tempo of the era.
Metre - very regular
Tempo - stays constant, speed of the beat stays pretty much the same all the way through
What is a concerto?
Concertos, symphonies and sonatas popular Classical forms
Concerto is a piece for a soloist and orchestra
Soloist has more of the tune and can really show off
Orchestra gets the tune too, not just the accompaniment
Three movements- quick, slow, quick
Often have a bit (candenza) orchestra stops and soloist mechanically improvises
Piano and violin concertos were most popular, but clarinet, horn and trumpet ones were written too
What is a symphony?
A massive piece
Can last more than an hour
Use full orchestra
Usually have four movements
Contrast between movements is important
A least one movement is in sonata form
^Usually first and sometimes last
What is a sonata?
Written for one instrument, but some for two instruments
Usually has three or four movements with breaks in between them
Similar structure to a symphony
What are overtures and suites?
An overture is a one-movement piece for orchestra
Written as introductions to larger works
A suite is an orchestral arrangement of the music used to accompany the action on stage, put together as a separate piece of music and played at concerts
What are the three main sections of sonata form?
Describe the exposition.
Has two contrasting themes
Ends in a different but related key to the one it started in
Describe the development.
Keeps the piece interesting
Themes are taken through lots of variations
Describe the recapitulation.
Pulls it all together again
Themes from the exposition are repeated
^Usually changed a bit
Composer might add ornaments or shorten them a bit
What are musical signposts?
Tell you what's coming next
Most obvious is a change of key
Key on dropping advance hints
Bridge passes - lead smoothly into the new theme and also help prepare the new key
Cadences - mark the end of a phrase or section. Come at the end of a piece too. Chords in the cadence often repeated over and over again to let the audience know the piece is over
What are the standard forms for a four-movement composition?
First movement - sonata form - brisk and purposeful
Second movement - ternary or variation form - slower and songlike
Third movement - minuet or scherzo - fairly fast and dance-like
Fourth movement - rondo, variation or sonata form - fast and cheerful
Third movement left out in sonatas in three movements
Who was Mozart?
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Born in Slazburg, Austria in 1756
Died in Vienna in 1791
Considered one of the greatest composers that ever lived
Describe some of Mozart's symphonies.
Wrote over 40
Wrote most of them before he was 25
Symphony No. 40 was written in 1788
One of only two which were written in a minor key
He wrote No. 40 and two others in 6 weeks
What was No. 40 written for?
Fairly small orchestra
No percussion at all, and the only brass instruments are the French Horns
Original version didn't have clarinets
Set work was a later version which included clarinets
How many movements does No. 40 have?
First movement - Molto Allegro (very fast) - sonata form
Second movement - Andante (walking pace) - sonata form
Third movement - Allegretto (in between andante and allegro) - minuet and trio form
Fourth movement - Allegro assai (very, very fast) - sonata form
Describe the exposition in No. 40.
First subject - bars 1-28 - first idea bars 1-9 and second idea 9-14. Both ideas played by violins. First three notes repeated throughout. Second idea starts with these notes but a 6th higher
Transition or Bridge Passage - bars 28-43 - forte throughout with lots of sforzanado from bar 34. Begins in Bb major but extra chromatic notes to add tension. Violins play a descending sequence from bars 30-33 over a lower string tremelo with sustained notes for the upper woodwind
Second subject - bars 44-72 - In Bb major though uses a lot of chromatic notes. Strings play the theme first then woodwind repeat it at bar 52. Ornaments used - woodwind plays trills in bar 65
Codetta - bars 72-100 - like a mini coda, used to finish the exposition section, lots of imitation between clarinet and bassoon, key changes from Bb major to G minor, whole of exposition is repeated
Describe the development section of No. 40.
Based on first idea of exposition section
Harmonies more chromatic in this bit
Begins in F# minor but explores lots of different keys (eg bars 118-128)
From bar 140 Mozart uses lots of pedal points
Describe the recapitulation of No. 40.
First subject - bars 164-184 - exactly the same as exposition
Bridge passage is much longer this time - lasts from bar 184-227
Passes through lots of keys including Eb major, F minor and D major
Sequence in bars 202-210
Second subject - bars 227-260 - shared between woodwind and strings, G minor, some ascending chromatic notes in the bass parts from bar 245
The coda - bars 260-299 - extended version of the codetta, finishes with four G minor chords, really obvious that the movement has finished
When was the romantic period?
Who were some romantic composers?
Some of Beethoven's later pieces
What were the composers trying to portray in the romantic period?
Feelings and nature
Wanted to show contrasts (e.g. love, hate, happiness, grief, life, death)