AoS1 - Western Classical Music

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  1. When was the Baroque period?
  2. What scales are used in tonal music?
    Major and minor
  3. How was contrast emphasised?
    By modulating between keys
  4. Name 4 structures which are used for composition.
    • Binary Form
    • Ternary Form
    • Rondo Form
    • Variation Form
  5. What makes Baroque music recognisable?
    • Terraced dynamics
    • Motifs (a lot of repetition)
    • Simple harmonies (mainly use chords 1 and 5)
    • Lots of added ornaments
    • Polyphonic texture (mostly)
  6. Describe basso continuo.
    • A continuous bass part
    • The chords are based on it
    • Often played on an organ or harpsichord
    • Could also be played on more than one instrument (cello, bassoon etc)
  7. Name 10 popular Baroque instruments.
    • Organ
    • Harpsichord
    • Bassoon
    • Flute
    • Double bass
    • Violin
    • Viola
    • Oboe
    • Recorder
    • Cello
  8. When was Classical music?
  9. What were the key differences between Classical and Baroque?
    • Classical contains fewer ornaments
    • Classical has balanced 4 bar phrases (2 bar question, 2 bar answer)
    • Classical had binary, rondo, ternary and variation forms but also made up sonata form
    • Baroque used terraced dynamics - Classical used crescendos and diminuendos
  10. When was the piano invented?
    • About 1700
    • Clarinet also invented around this time
  11. Why was piano more preferred than the harpsichord?
    Because you could perform dynamics on it
  12. How did Classical music change the orchestra?
    • They got bigger
    • Woodwind, trumpets and horns were used more
    • The strings section was expanded
  13. Describe binary form.
    • There are two bits of a tune
    • Usually used for Baroque dances
    • AABB
    • A and B should be contrasting
    • Often a modulation between A and B
    • Minor to major, Major to dominant
  14. Give 5 examples of Baroque dances.
    • Bourrée
    • Menuet
    • Gavotte
    • Sarabande
    • Gigue
  15. Describe ternary form.
    • There are three sections
    • AABBAA
    • Section A ends in the home key, usually with a perfect cadence
    • Section B modulates to a related key then goes back to home key before it ends
    • Final section, the same or slightly varied from the first
    • If it is varied, would be called A1 instead of A
  16. What is an aria?
    • A solo in an opera or oratorio
    • Often used in ternary from (Baroque period)
    • ^This type of aria is called a 'da capo aria'
  17. How were arias used in ternary form in the Baroque period?
    You would do A followed by B, where you would come to a 'da capo al fine' when you would go back and play A until you reach 'fine'
  18. Where did Classical composers use ternary form?
    • In symphonies
    • The third movement is often in a ternary form called 'minuet and trio'
    • The trio is in a different (related) key to create contrast
    • They're sandwiched together to give the whole movement a ternary structure
  19. Describe rondo form.
    • It can have any number of sections
    • ABACADAEAFA..........
    • The main theme is always in the home key
    • Each episode tends to modulate to a related key for contrast
  20. Describe theme and variation form.
    • The theme is a memorable tune
    • Theme, short pause, first variation, short pause, second variation etc...
    • No limit to number of variations
    • Each variation should be a recognisable version of the main theme, but different to all the others
  21. Give 8 ways you could create a variation of a theme.
    • Add notes
    • Remove notes
    • Change the metre
    • Add a countermelody
    • Change the tempo
    • Change the key
    • Change some or all of the chords
    • Add a different type of acompaniment
  22. What is ground bass form?
    • Varies ideas over a fixed bass part
    • Continuous, no pauses
    • Main theme (ground) continuously played
    • Varying melodies and harmonies which become more complex are played over the ground
    • Two types of Baroque dance which are in ground bass form (chaconne and passacaglia) which are slow and stately
  23. What is inversion of a melody?
    • Turning the tune upside down
    • Keep the same intervals but go in the opposite direction
  24. What is retrograde of a melody?
    • Playing the tune backwards
    • Start with the last note and go backwards until you reach the beginning
  25. What is sequencing of a melody?
    • Where you repeat the pattern or the phrase but start on a different note
    • Handel used a descending sequence in bars 18-19 of Glory of the Lord
  26. What is imitation of a melody?
    • Where you repeat a phrase but with slight changes
    • Bars 63-68 between the alto and tenor parts in Glory of the Lord
    • Bars 72-76 in Symphony No. 40 in G minor
  27. What is ostinato?
    • Where you keep one pattern the same and change the rest
    • Basically a repetition
    • Doesn't have to just be in the bass line, it can be in the melody or chord pattern
    • It can last for more than one bar
  28. What is the difference between a Baroque trill and a Classical trill?
    • Baroque begins on the note above the written note and goes quickly back and forth between these two notes
    • Classical begins on the written note and goes up to the note above
  29. What is an appoggiatura?
    • A note which clashes with the accompanying chord
    • It is half the value of the following note
    • Note before it is usually quite a jump away
    • The note after is just above or below and called the resolution
    • Resolution has to be from the accompanying chord
    • Also called grace notes
    • Another type of grace note is called the acciaccatura, played very quickly
  30. What is a mordent?
    • Starts off like a trill
    • They end on the written note, which is played a bit longer than the trilled notes
  31. What is a turn?
    • Starts on the note above the written note then goes back to the written note, goes to the note below and back to the written note
    • An inverted turn starts on the note below the written note, written note, note above written note and back to written note
  32. What is choral music?
    • Sung by choirs and soloists
    • Can be sacred or secular
  33. Describe sacred music.
    • Mass - part of the catholic church service set to music
    • Requiem - mass for the dead
    • Chorale - a hymn
    • Oratorio - religious version of an opera, often telling bible stories
    • Cantata - vocal pieces made up of two or three arias, separated by recitatives
  34. Describe secular music.
    • Opera - a story set to music with singing and acting. Most operas were divided up into three parts or acts. The main types of Baroque opera were....
    • - Opera Seria - serious, often mythical themes
    • - Opera buffa - lighter, more everyday themes
    • - Opera comique - like opera buffa but with some spoken recitatives
    • - Operetta - not big enough to be a proper opera
    • Canata - you can get secular cantatas as well
  35. What are the three main types of song in an opera, oratorio or cantata?
    • Aria
    • Recitative
    • Chorus
  36. What is an aria?
    • A solo vocal piece
    • Gives main characters the chance to show what they're thinking and feeling
  37. What is a recitative?
    • A song which tells the story and moves it along
    • The rhythm of the words tend to imitate the rhythm of normal speech
  38. What is a chorus?
    • Sung by the chorus (a choir)
    • Usually written for SATB choirs (soprano, alto, tenor, bass)
    • Most Baroque choirs are all male
  39. What are oratorios?
    • Religious versions of operas
    • Often tell bible stories with a religious or moral theme
    • Not usually acted out with scenery and costumes
    • Normally have instrumental accompaniment
    • Can be performed in concert halls as well as churches
  40. Who was Handel?
    • George Frideric Handel
    • Born in Germany, 1685
    • From about 1710, lived in England
    • Died in London in 1759
  41. What was Handels most famous oratorio?
    • Messiah
    • Handel wrote Messiah in 1741
    • Took about three weeks to compose
    • Became popular with audiences because of uplifting choruses
    • Mozart like it so much he arranged his own version of it
    • Originally was performed at Easter but now performed at Christmas
    • The text (libretto) was put together by Charles Jennens who took words from old and new testaments
  42. How many sections are in Messiah?
    • Three
    • First section describes the prophecies about Jesus' birth
    • Second section about presecution and crucifixion of Jesus
    • Third section about his ressurection
  43. Describe the chorus of Messiah.
    • Fourth piece in the first section
    • Comes after an aria sung by a tenor and before a bass recitative
    • First chorus you hear in the oratorio
    • Made up of the lines- 'and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed' 'and all flesh shall see it together' 'for the mouth of the Lord hath spoken it'
    • ^These phrases are repeated throughout the piece
    • For most of the chorus, orchestra doubles vocal parts
    • Instruments often play in unison with the singers
  44. What is the key of Messiah?
    • Major
    • Most in A major
    • Modulates a few times (twice to E major and once to B major)
    • Mostly homophonic
    • Some bits are polyphonic (in bars 91-107)
    • Piece marked allegro, quick and lively
    • In 3/4, but in some places feels like 2/4 (called hemiola)
  45. Describe the first motif.
    • Sung by altos 
    • Bars 11-14
    • Most of phrase is syllabic (each syllable has its own note)
  46. Describe the second motif.
    • Intoduced by the tenors 
    • Bars 17-20
    • 'Be revealed' spread over a descending sequence
    • Syllables of 'revealed' spread over lots of notes (melismatic, opposite of syllabic)
  47. Describe the third motif.
    • First sung by altos
    • Bars 43-46
    • Same bit of melody repeated three times
  48. Describe the fourth motif.
    • Introduced by tenors and basses
    • Bars 51-57
    • Only motif that's introduced by two parts
    • Sing in unison for first 5 bars
    • Sing in harmony for last two bars
    • Most of motif on same note (A)
    • ^This is a pedal point
    • Notes are quite long (minims and dotted minims)
    • Sounds serious and important
  49. What cadence does Messiah end in?
    • Plagal
    • Last four bars marked adagio. Much slower
  50. Who was Orchestral music written for?
    • Wealthy audiences
    • Royalty and aristocrats
    • Composers paid to write music for official events, church services and entertainment
  51. Describe the orchestra in the Classical period.
    • At the beginning, fairly small (mainly strings, with horns, flutes and oboes)
    • Later on woodwind section grew. Clarinets invented
    • Mozart was the first to use clarinet in a symphony
    • Bassoons also introduced
    • Trumpets added to brass section
    • Timpani included in percussion section
    • At beginning there was a harpsichord but was replaced by the increasing woodwind section
  52. Describe the roles of the instruments in the Classical orchestra.
    • Mostly stringed - dominant sound in most Classical music. Violins play most of the tunes
    • Wind play extra notes to fill out the harmonies
    • Occasional wind solo
    • Later in Classical music wind started to have a more independent role
  53. Describe the structure of Classical music.
    • Short balanced two or four bar phrases
    • Question followed by answer
  54. Describe the texture of Classical music.
    • Most Classical music has just one tune with accompanying chords. Homophonic texture
    • There are block chords and broken chords
    • Polyphony - where several tunes weave in and out of each other - sometimes used but not often
  55. What is the tonality of the pieces of the era?
    • Major and minor
    • Classical harmony known as diatonic (nearly all the notes belong in the home key)
  56. Describe the metre and tempo of the era.
    • Metre - very regular
    • Tempo - stays constant, speed of the beat stays pretty much the same all the way through
  57. What is a concerto?
    • Concertos, symphonies and sonatas popular Classical forms
    • Concerto is a piece for a soloist and orchestra
    • Soloist has more of the tune and can really show off
    • Orchestra gets the tune too, not just the accompaniment
    • Three movements- quick, slow, quick
    • Often have a bit (candenza) orchestra stops and soloist mechanically improvises
    • Piano and violin concertos were most popular, but clarinet, horn and trumpet ones were written too
  58. What is a symphony?
    • A massive piece
    • Can last more than an hour
    • Use full orchestra
    • Usually have four movements
    • Contrast between movements is important
    • A least one movement is in sonata form
    • ^Usually first and sometimes last
  59. What is a sonata?
    • Written for one instrument, but some for two instruments
    • Usually has three or four movements with breaks in between them
    • Similar structure to a symphony
  60. What are overtures and suites?
    • An overture is a one-movement piece for orchestra
    • Written as introductions to larger works
    • A suite is an orchestral arrangement of the music used to accompany the action on stage, put together as a separate piece of music and played at concerts
  61. What are the three main sections of sonata form?
    • Exposition
    • Development
    • Recapitulation
  62. Describe the exposition.
    • Has two contrasting themes
    • Ends in a different but related key to the one it started in
  63. Describe the development.
    • Keeps the piece interesting
    • Themes are taken through lots of variations
  64. Describe the recapitulation.
    • Pulls it all together again
    • Themes from the exposition are repeated
    • ^Usually changed a bit
    • Composer might add ornaments or shorten them a bit
  65. What are musical signposts?
    • Tell you what's coming next
    • Most obvious is a change of key
    • Key on dropping advance hints
    • Bridge passes - lead smoothly into the new theme and also help prepare the new key
    • Cadences - mark the end of a phrase or section. Come at the end of a piece too. Chords in the cadence often repeated over and over again to let the audience know the piece is over
  66. What are the standard forms for a four-movement composition?
    • First movement - sonata form - brisk and purposeful
    • Second movement - ternary or variation form - slower and songlike
    • Third movement - minuet or scherzo - fairly fast and dance-like
    • Fourth movement - rondo, variation or sonata form - fast and cheerful
    • Third movement left out in sonatas in three movements
  67. Who was Mozart?
    • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    • Born in Slazburg, Austria in 1756
    • Died in Vienna in 1791
    • Considered one of the greatest composers that ever lived
  68. Describe some of Mozart's symphonies.
    • Wrote over 40
    • Wrote most of them before he was 25
    • Symphony No. 40 was written in 1788
    • One of only two which were written in a minor key
    • He wrote No. 40 and two others in 6 weeks
  69. What was No. 40 written for?
    • Fairly small orchestra
    • No percussion at all, and the only brass instruments are the French Horns
    • Original version didn't have clarinets 
    • Set work was a later version which included clarinets
  70. How many movements does No. 40 have?
    • Four
    • First movement - Molto Allegro (very fast) - sonata form
    • Second movement - Andante (walking pace) - sonata form
    • Third movement - Allegretto (in between andante and allegro) - minuet and trio form
    • Fourth movement - Allegro assai (very, very fast) - sonata form
  71. Describe the exposition in No. 40.
    • Bars 1-100
    • First subject - bars 1-28 - first idea bars 1-9 and second idea 9-14. Both ideas played by violins. First three notes repeated throughout. Second idea starts with these notes but a 6th higher
    • Transition or Bridge Passage - bars 28-43 - forte throughout with lots of sforzanado from bar 34. Begins in Bb major but extra chromatic notes to add tension. Violins play a descending sequence from bars 30-33 over a lower string tremelo with sustained notes for the upper woodwind
    • Second subject - bars 44-72 - In Bb major though uses a lot of chromatic notes. Strings play the theme first then woodwind repeat it at bar 52. Ornaments used - woodwind plays trills in bar 65
    • Codetta - bars 72-100 - like a mini coda, used to finish the exposition section, lots of imitation between clarinet and bassoon, key changes from Bb major to G minor, whole of exposition is repeated
  72. Describe the development section of No. 40.
    • Bars 101-164
    • Based on first idea of exposition section
    • Harmonies more chromatic in this bit
    • Begins in F# minor but explores lots of different keys (eg bars 118-128)
    • From bar 140 Mozart uses lots of pedal points
  73. Describe the recapitulation of No. 40.
    • Bars 164-299
    • First subject - bars 164-184 - exactly the same as exposition
    • Bridge passage is much longer this time - lasts from bar 184-227
    • Passes through lots of keys including Eb major, F minor and D major
    • Polyphonic
    • Sequence in bars 202-210
    • Second subject - bars 227-260 - shared between woodwind and strings, G minor, some ascending chromatic notes in the bass parts from bar 245
    • The coda - bars 260-299 - extended version of the codetta, finishes with four G minor chords, really obvious that the movement has finished
  74. When was the romantic period?
    1820-1900 (about)
  75. Who were some romantic composers?
    • Tchaikovsky
    • Brahms
    • Chopin
    • Some of Beethoven's later pieces
  76. What were the composers trying to portray in the romantic period?
    • Feelings and nature
    • Wanted to show contrasts (e.g. love, hate, happiness, grief, life, death)
    • Fascinated by supernatural ideas
  77. What was the romantic music based on?
    • Poems and paintings
    • They also used their music to create stories
  78. What are the dynamics like in Romantic music?
    Wide range
Card Set:
AoS1 - Western Classical Music
2015-02-22 17:50:10
GCSE Music AoS1
GCSE Music Area of Study 1
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