Chemistry Chapter 4

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  1. Matter
    • Anything that has mass
    • Anything that takes up space
    • Eg. wood, water, air
    • Refer to particle theory of matter
    • Refer to classification of matter
  2. Particle Theory of Matter
    • All matter is made of particles
    • Each pure substance has its own kind of particle which is unique from other particles
    • Particle attract each other
    • Particles are always moving
    • High temperature = faster movement, low temperature = slower movement
  3. Classification of Matter
    • Matter 
    • Mixture  - mechanical mixture, solution
    • Pure Substances - elements, compounds
  4. Pure Substance
    • Contains one kind of particle
    • Cannot be broken down further by physical methods
  5. Element
    • Pure substance
    • Cannot be broken down further and still retain its properties
    • All elements contain protons, electrons and neutrons but they all contain unique amounts of protons, electrons and neutrons
  6. Compound
    • Pure substance
    • Made of two or more different elements chemically combined
    • Can be broken down chemically
  7. Mixture
    • Contains more than one kind of particle
    • Can be separated by physical methods
    • Multiple kinds of particles sharing one space
  8. Solution
    • Physical combinations of two or more particles that look like ONE
    • Homogeneous mixture
    • Eg. water+salt, lemonade, air, bronze, peanut butter cookie
  9. Mechanical Mixture
    • Physical combination of two or more particles in which you can see ALL the different parts
    • Eg. pizza, oil+water, chocolate chip cookies, lava lamp
  10. Physical Property
    • Characteristic of a substance that can be observed and measured without changing the identity of the substance
    • Divided into qualitative (colour, odour, state, texture, luster, malleability, clarity) and quantitative (viscosity, melting point, boiling point, solubility, hardness, conductivity, density)
  11. Viscosity
    • Resistance to flow
    • Viscous = resistant, non-viscous = not resistant
  12. Melting Point
    Temperature of melting
  13. Boiling Point
    Temperature of boiling
  14. Soluability
    Ability to dissolve in another substance
  15. Density
    • Ratio of mass to volume
    • g/cm2 or g/ml
    • Water = 1 g/ml
    • If substances have a smaller density than others they float, if they have larger densities they sink
    • D=m/v
    • m=Dxv
    • v=m/d
  16. Hardness
    • Softness of a substance
    • Can it be scratched?
  17. States of Matter
    • Solid - sublimation - gas
    • Gas - deposition - solid
    • Solid - melt - liquid
    • Liquid - solidification - solid
    • Liquid - evaporation - gas
    • Gas - condensation - liquid
  18. Chemical Property
    • Describes the behavior  of a substance as ti reacts with another substance to form one or more new substances
    • Reactivity With Water
    • The ability of a substance to react with water to form a gas
    • Eg. calcium carbide forms from acetylene gas and water
    • Reactivity With Oxygen
    • The ability of a substance to react to oxygen forming an oxide
    • Eg. aluminium metal reacts with oxygen forming aluminium oxide, this layer protects the metal
    • Reactivity With Acids
    • The ability of a substance to react to acid and produce a gas
    • Eg. baking soda reacts with acid to form carbon dioxide bubbles
    • Reactivity With Another Pure Substance
    • Allows scientist to develop new products
  19. Combustuability
    • The ability of a substance to react quickly with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide
    • Eg. propane used as fuel to cook food and to heat air in hot air balloons
  20. Stability
    The ability of a substance to remain unchanged
  21. Toxicity
    The ability of a substance to cause harmful effect to plants and animals
  22. Physical Change
    • The original substance remains the same but may change state or firm
    • Eg. ice cubes - water, spreading peanut butter
    • Solubility is a physical change
  23. Chemical Change
    • The original substance has changed into one or more different substances with different properties
    • Clues it has occurred - new colour, heat/light is produced, gas bubbles, precipitate forms

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Chemistry Chapter 4
2015-01-07 22:28:37

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