World Prehistory Ch.1

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World Prehistory Ch.1
2015-01-07 23:25:16
WorldPrehistory Chapter1 Anthropology Terms People

World Prehistory chapter 1 terms and people
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  1. Charles Darwin
    • Publisher of the book On the Origin of Species which contains the Theory of Evolution
    • Studied the Galapagos Islands species to prove adaptation
  2. Cultural Ecology
    an approach to the stud of human society which argues that change results in large part from the response of human societies to the challenges and opportunities of their environments
  3. Lewis Henry Morgan
    Argued that humans had undergone a evolution of progress in society, from savagery to civilization
  4. Emulation
    Consciously adopting the features of another society
  5. Willard Libby
    Invented radiocarbon dating
  6. Innovation
    The development of new artifacts and techniques
  7. Julian Steward
    • 1. Helped make cultural ecology influential in North America
    • 2. Defined Cultural Ecology as "the study of the adaptive processes by which the nature of society, and an unpredictable number of features of culture are affected by the basic adjustment through which man utilizes a given environment"  
    • 3. studied irrigation in early societies
  8. Agency Theory
    individuals in the past were knowledgeable actors. Though they were constrained, they still affected change.
  9. Migration
    Movement by humans from one location to another with the purpose of settling, temporarily or permanently. 
  10. Off-Site or Survey Archaeology
    Imaging and mapping of site to determine features. Including GPS, Magnetic Imaging. 
  11. Elman Service
    Categorized Human Societies into Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, and States. 
  12. Diffusion
    Unconscious spreading of ideas through adjacent societies. 
  13. Lewis Binford
    Founder of Processual Archaeology and ethnoarchaeology.
  14. Cognitive Archaeology
    Study of religious and symbolic behavior and the evolution of the human mind.
  15. Processual Archaeology
    Understanding the how and why of human behavior. Focuses on the cultural process. 
  16. Experimental Archaeology
    Tasks or objects from the past are replicated to compare with their archaeological remains. 
  17. Postprocessual Archaeology
    Rejects the notion that we can ever obtain an objective knowledge of the past. 
  18. Archaeology
    Study of the human past through material remains. 
  19. Gender Archaeology
    An approach emphasizing the role of females in past societies.
  20. History
    Study of the past through writings.
  21. Prehistory
    Before writing.
  22. Stratigraphy
    Successive deposition of superimposed layers (either natural or cultural materials). 
  23. Chronology
    Arrangement of events or dates in their order. 
  24. Symbolic Behavior
    Use of symbols in language. 
  25. Radiocarbon Dating
    Measurement of the ratio of C-14 to C-12 in order to date artifacts. Accurate up to 40k years ago. 
  26. Calibration
    Corrections of dates based upon new evidence. 
  27. aDNA
    Ancient DNA, compromised by organic decay. Potential to show relationships in hominid species. 
  28. Three Age System
    • Stone Age
    •      Paleolithinc
    •      Neolithic
    • Bronze Age
    •      Early 
    •      Middle 
    •      Late
    • Iron Age 
    •      Early
    •      Middle
    •      Late
  29. Evolutionary Ecology
    How species evolve based upon adaptation to their environments. 
  30. State Society
    10,000+ people, Ruled by a large institutional governance that controls wealth and rank without regard for kinship. 
  31. Ethnoarchaeology
    Ethnographic Study of Peoples for archaeological reasons.