chapter 6: process of normal labor
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4 important variables of labor (4 P's)
- 1. passageway: pelvis, its sixe and shape
- 2. passenger: fetus size and position
- 3.power: effectiveness of contractions
- 4.psyche: preparation and previous experience
what is the greatest danger after delvery for the mother?
what is the purpose of the nitrazine paper test?
to confirm whether the amniotic membranes have ruptured. will turn deep blue if fluid is present.
for the nitrazine paper test, what color will the paper turn if amniotic fluid is present?
what happens during the first stage of labor?
- -begins with regular contractions
- -stage completed when cervix is dilated
- -referred to as stage of effacement and dilation
- -2 CHANGES!! : (1) complete efaacement 100% (2) complete dilation of cervix 10cm
3 phases of first stage of labor?
1. Latent: contractions occur q 10-15 min last 15-20 seconds (good time to ask woman questions and explain things) ** phase last until cervix is dilated to 4cm
2. Active: cervical diation from 4cm to 7cm fetal decent begins. contractions are moderate- strong
3.Transition: cervical diation of 8-10. contractions are more frequent
what occurs during the second stage of labor?
what is valsalva's maneuver? & what triggers it?
contraction occur q?
-cervix dilation to delivery of the baby.
- -mother should ot hold breath for more than 5 seconds. b/c it may trigger Valsalva's Maneuver
- - valsalva's maneuver= closing of glottis which increases intrathoracic pressure and CV pressure cutting off o2 across placenta.
-contractions occur q 2-3 min and last 60-90 seconds
difference between effacement and dilation.
- Effaccement- thinning and shortening of cervix
- Dilation- opening of the cervix
person who is TRAINED to assist with child birth
what is variable deceleration?
what occurs during the third stage of labor?
what med is given?
how is umbilical cord cut?
what is done to new born? and why?
- placental separation stage. begins with the birth of he baby and ends with the expulsion of the placenta.
- -process can last up to 30 min
-umbilical cord is clamped in two places and is cut in between the clamps.
-mouth and nose of new born are suctioned to clear mucus and prevent aspiration.
-oxytocin (Pitocin) is given to mother to keep uterus firm and prevent blood loss.
what occurs during fourth stage of labor?
- -last from first 1-4 hrs or until mothers VS are stable
- -blood loss ranges from 250-500ml
- -uterine muscles must stay contracted and firm to compress open vessels at placental site to prevent blood loss (hemorrhage)
characteristics of TRUE labor
- SHOW: ususally present increases as cervix changes
- CONTRACTIONS: regular, w/ increases in intensity and duration
- DISCOMFORT: begins in lumbar region and then abd
- ACTIVITY: contractions intensifies with activity (walking)
- CERVICAL CHANGES: effacement and progressive dilation of cervix
characteristics of FALSE labor
- SHOW: none present
- CONTRACTIONS: irregular no change in frequency and intensity
- DISCOMFORT: often located in abd
- ACTIVITY: contractions lessened by walking
- CERVICAL CHANGES: no cervical changes
what are the mechanisms of labor (cardinal movements)
what are postures dictated by?
- -series of movement that reflect changes in the fetus's posture as it adapts to the birth canal
- postures are dictated by the 4 P's
adaptive movements of fetal head and shoulders. (NAME 6) and describe.
- Internal rotation-
- External rotation-
Signs of placental separation (NAME 3)
- lengthening of cord
- change in shape of uterus
- trickle or gush of blood from the vagina
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