Space Chapter 8

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  1. Electromagnetic Radiation
    • Types of energy waves ranging from radio waves to gamma rays
    • Travel at the speed of light
  2. Refracting Telescope
    Uses a lens to collect light from an object
  3. Reflecting Telescope
    Uses a mirror to collect light from an object
  4. Satelite
    • An artificial object or vehicle that orbits Earth, the moon or other celestial bodies
    • A celestial body that orbits a body of larger size (eg. Moon and Earth)
  5. Orbiter
    Observatories that orbit other celestial bodies
  6. Solar Nebula Theory
    How stars and planets form from contracting spinning disks of gas and dust
  7. Star
    A celestial body made of hot gasses (hydrogen and helium)
  8. Nebula
    Cloud of gas and dust that may be the birthplace of stars
  9. Protostar
    A young star
  10. Nuclear Fusion
    • Nuclear reaction in which energy is produced
    • Hydrogen nuclei combine with each other to form helium nuclei
  11. Photosphere
    Surface layer of the Sun
  12. Sun Spot
    • An area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere 
    • When charged particles disturb the Sun's photosphere sunspots form
    • The photosphere is about 6000oC whereas sunspots are about 4500oC
    • Occur in 22 yea cycles peaking in numbers at intervals of 11 years
  13. Sun's Roatation
    The equator rotates faster than at the poles
  14. Solar Wind
    Magnetic fields explosive eject streams of charged particles into space
  15. Solar Flare
    • Occur where there is a high concentration of sunspots ejecting solar wind
    • When they hit Earth as solar storms they disrupt telecommunication and can damage electronics
    • Can result in shimmering curtain of green and/or red lights called auroras or the Northern/Southern lights
    • Result in high-energy charged particles are carried past Earth's magnetic field generating electric current that flows towards the poles
    • They charge gasses in the Earth's atmosphere producing light in auroras.
  16. Importance of The Sun
    • Drives most processes on Earth
    • Powers wind, ocean currents and weather
    • Emits radiation from across the entire electromagnetic spectrum
    • Earth's surface absorbs most visible light and emits infrared radiation into the atmosphere
    • Process of absorbing and reflecting warms the Earth
  17. Lumosity
    • A measure of the total amount of energy radiated per second
    • Some stars are 10 000 times less bright than the Sun while others are 30 000 times more luminous
  18. Absolute Magnitude
    • How bright a star would be at a distance of 32.6 light years from Earth
    • The absolute magnitude of the Sun is 4.7 (compared to other stars it is faint)
  19. Spectroscope
    • An instrument that produces a pattern of colours and lines called a spectrum
    • Lines are called spectrum lines
    • Spectrum identifies the elements within the stars photosphere
  20. Spectral Lines
    The lines on the spectroscope
  21. Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
    Graph contains colour (blue-red) and temperature on the x-axis as well as absolute magnitude (ranging from dimmer-brighter) on the y-axis
  22. Main Sequence
    • The central band of stars stretching from upper left to lower right
    • 90% of a stars life is spent here
  23. White dwarf
    • One of the final stages of a stars life
    • Star slowly loses mass and becomes very faint
    • No longer produce energy but are very hot
    • After tens of billions of years astronomers theories that they become dark dwarves because they have cooled
  24. Supernova
    • When a high mass star dies the core collapses sending a shock wave through the star
    • This shock wave causes the outer portions of the star to explode
    • This causes a supernova
    • Can be millions of times brighter than the actual star
    • Heavier elements contained in the star are ejected into the universe (to form new stars or planets) when a supernova occurs
  25. Neutron Star
    • Some stars' cores will shrink to 20 km in diameter 
    • The electrons get forced into protons creating neutrons
    • First found neutron star was in Crab Nebula
  26. How Low-Mass Stars Evolve
    • Begin as red dwarves
    • Slowly uses up hydrogen over 100 billion years
    • As they age they lose mass and become white dwarves
    • Over tens of billions of years the white dwarves will cool and become black dwarves
  27. How Intermediate-Mass Stars Evolve
    • Consume hydrogen faster than low-mass
    • Core will collapse when hydrogen is used up
    • As core contracts the outer layers heat up ad expand 
    • Layers are cooler and appear red creating red giants
    • Eventually layers dissapear and star becomes white dwarf
  28. How High-Mass Stars Evolve
    • Consume hydrogen even faster than intermediate-mass
    • Heavier elements formed by fusion, the star expands into supergiants
    • When iron forms the core collapses sending shock waves through the star
    • Outer portion of star explodes creating a supernova
  29. Black Hole
    • Remnant of supernovas 
    • Cannot compete with the force of gravity and is crushed into a black hole
    • No volume but has mass
    • Gravitational pull is so strong not even light can escape
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Space Chapter 8
2015-01-09 03:24:01

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