Space Chapter 8

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Space Chapter 8
2015-01-08 21:20:27
sciecne space

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  1. Electromagnetic Radiation
    radiation consisting of electromagnetic waves that travel at the speed of light (such as visible light, radio waves, and X-rays)
  2. Refracting Telescope
    A telescope that uses a lens to collect the light from an object
  3. Reflecting Telescope
    A telescope that uses a mirror to collect the light from an object
  4. Satellite
    An artificial (human-made) object or vehicle that orbits Earth, the Moon, or other celestial bodies; also, a celestial body that orbits another body of larger size (for example, the Moon is Earth's natural satellite)
  5. Orbiters
    Observatories that orbit other celestial objects
  6. Solar Nebula Theory
    The theory that describes how stars and planets form from contracting, spinning disks of gas and dust
  7. Star
    A celestial body made of hot gases mainly hydrogen and some helium
  8. Nebula
    a cloud of gas and dust in outer space, visible in the night sky either as an indistinct bright patch or as a dark silhouette against other luminous matter.
  9. Protostar
    A hot, condensed object at the centre of a nebula
  10. Nuclear Fusion
    The process of energy production in which hydrogen nuclei combine to form helium nuclei
  11. Photosphere
    The surface layer of the Sun
  12. Sunspot
    An area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere
  13. Solar Wind
    A stream of fast-moving charged particles ejected by the Sun into the solar system
  14. Solar Flare
    a brief eruption of intense high-energy radiation from the sun's surface, associated with sunspots and causing electromagnetic disturbances on the earth, as with radio frequency communications and power line transmissions.
  15. Importance of the Sun
    Without the heat and light of the sun, life as we know it could not exist on the earth. Since solar energy is used by green plants in the process of photosynthesis, the sun is the ultimate source of the energy stored both in food and fossil fuels. Solar heating sets up convection currents, and thus is the source of the energy of moving air. Falling rain also owes its energy to the sun because of the relation of solar radiation to the water cycle.
  16. Luminosity
    A star's total energy output per second; its power in joules per second (J/s)
  17. Absolute Magnitude
    The magnitude of a star that we would observe if the star were 32.6 light years from Earth
  18. Spectroscope
    An optical instrument that produces a spectrum from a narrow beam of light, and usually projects the spectrum onto a photographic plate or a digital detector
  19. Spectral Lines
    Certain specific wavelengths within a spectrum characterized by lines; spectral lines identify specific chemical elements
  20. Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram
    A graph that compares the properties of stars
  21. Main Sequence
    A narrow band of stars on the H-R diagram that runs diagonally from the upper left (bright, hot stars to the lower right (dim,cool stars); about 90 percent of stars, including the Sun are in the main sequence
  22. White Dwarf
    A small, dim, hot star
  23. Supernova
    A massive explosion in which the entire outer portion of a star is blown off
  24. Neutron Star
    A star so dense that only neutrons can exist in its core
  25. How low-mass stars evolve
    Consume their hydrogen slowly over a period that may be as long as 100 billion years. As they age they slowly lose mass becoming a very faint white dwarf. They no longer produce energy but are incredibly hot, taking tens of billions of years from them to cool down.
  26. How intermediate-mass stars evolve
    Consume their hydrogen faster than low-mass stars. When their hydrogen is used up, the core collapses. As the core contracts, the temperature increases and the outer layers begin to expand. The expanded layers are cooler and appear red called a red giant.
  27. How high-mass stars evolve
    Consume fuel faster than intermediate-mass stars and die more quickly and more violently. Heavier elements form by fusion and the star expands into a supergiant. Iron forms in the core and the core collapses violently and a shock wave travels through the star. The outer portion of the star explodes producing a super nova. A super nova can be millions of times brighter than the original star was.
  28. Black Hole
    The remnant of a supernova explosion with a gravitational field so strong that nothing can escape its pull.