BIO-1120: Chapter 20

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BIO-1120: Chapter 20
2015-01-08 22:41:54
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  1. Bioinformatics
    The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets.
  2. Evo-Devo
    Evolutionary developmental biology; a field of biology that compares developmental processes of different multicellular organisms to understand how these processes have evolved and how changes can modify existing organismal features or lead to new ones.
  3. Gene Annotation
    Analysis of genomic sequences to identify protein-coding genes and determine the function of their products.
  4. Genomics
    The systematic study of whole sets of genes (or other DNA) and their interactions within a species, as well as genome comparisons between species.
  5. Homeobox
    A 180-nucleotide sequence within homeotic genes and some other developmental genes that is widely conserved in animals. Related sequences occur in plants and yeasts.
  6. Human Genome Project
    An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
  7. Metagenomics
    The collection and sequence of DNA from a group of species, usually an environmental sample of microorganisms. Computer software sorts partial sequences and assembles them into genome sequences of individual species making up the sample.
  8. Multigene Families
    A collection of genes with similar or identical sequences, presumably of common origin.
  9. Proteomics
    The systematic study of sets of proteins and their properties, including their abundance, chemical modifications, and interactions.
  10. Pseudogene
    A DNA segment that is very similar to a real gene but does not yield a functional product; a DNA segment that formerly functioned as a gene but has become inactivated in a particular species because of mutation.
  11. Repetitive DNA
    Nucleotide sequences, usually noncoding, that are present in many copies in a eukaryotic genome. The repeated units may be short and arranged tandemly (in series) or long and dispersed in the genome.
  12. Retrotransposon
    A transposable element that moves within a genome by means of an RNA intermediate, a transcript of the retrotransposon DNA.
  13. Short Tandem Repeat (STR)
    Simple sequence DNA containing multiple tandemly repeated units of two to five nucleotides. Variations in STRs act as genetic markers in STR analysis, used to prepare genetic profiles.
  14. Simple Sequence DNA
    A DNA sequence that contains many copies of tandemly repeated short sequences.
  15. Systems Biology
    An approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems based on a study of the interactions among the system's parts.
  16. Transposable Element
    A segment of DNA that can move within the genome of cell by means of DNA or RNA intermediate; also called a transposable genetic element.
  17. Transposon
    A transposable element that moves within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate.
  18. Whole-Genome Shotgun Approach
    Procedure for genome sequencing in which the gneome is randomly cut into many overlapping short segments that are sequenced; computer software then assembles the complete sequence.