Fire Service Hydraulics and Water Supply - 2nd Ed. Glossary

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  1. Acceptance Test
    A test conducted at the discretion of the purchaser to ensure that the apparatus meets the bid specifications once it is delivered.
  2. Aerial Apparatus
    An apparatus whose primary function is to provide access for firefighters to upper levels of a structure and to deploy elevated master streams.
  3. Apparatus Typing
    Categorization of wildland apparatus by capability.
  4. Attack Pumper
    The pumper within a relay that supplies attack lines and appliances.
  5. Automatic Drain Valve
    A nozzle that drains piping when pressure in the pipe is relieved.
  6. Automatic Nozzle
    A nozzle that maintains a constant nozzle pressure of approximately 100 psi.
  7. Average Daily Consumption
    The average total amount of water used daily in a water distribution system over one year.
  8. Bleeder Line (Bleeder Valve)
    A valve that allows water to force air from a hose as the line fills; prevents air from entering the pump.
  9. Branch Line
    Piping that contains the sprinklers in the AUTOMATIC sprinkler system.
  10. British Thermal Unit (BTU)
    The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1°F.
  11. Broken Stream
    A fire stream that has been divided into coarse drops.
  12. Casing
    The main body of a pump; in a centrifugal pump, confines the water and converts its velocity to pressure.
  13. Cellar Nozzle (Distributor)
    A nozzle designed specifically for use on basement fires that are otherwise inaccessible for standard fire fighting operations.
  14. Centrifugal Pump
    A pump that uses centrifugal force to impart velocity to water and then transforms that velocity to pressure.
  15. Changeover
    The process of switching a two-stage centrifugal pump between pressure and volume pumping.
  16. Check Valve
    A valve that limits the flow of water to one direction.
  17. Chemical Treatment
    The use of chemicals to add or remove elements to or from water.
  18. Chimney Nozzle
    A nozzle used to attack chimney flue fires.
  19. Circle System (Belt System)
    A water supply system forming a loop that serves all customers on the system.
  20. Clappered Siamese
    A siamese that has a one-way clapper valve on each intake.
  21. Coagulation
    The introduction of chemicals to water that cause solid particles to bond forming larger pieces.
  22. Coefficient of Discharge
    A correction factor relating to the shape of the hydrant or nozzle discharge orifice.
  23. Combination System
    A water supply system using elements of both direct pumping and gravity systems.
  24. Combined Agent Vehicle
    A small initial attack aircraft rescue and fire fighting apparatus.
  25. Constant Pressure Relay Method
    A relay operation that establishes the maximum flow available from a particular relay setup by using a constant pressure in the system.
  26. Cross Main
    Piping that carries water from a feed main to branch lines in an automatic sprinkler system.
  27. Dead-end Hydrant
    A fire hydrant that receives water from only one direction.
  28. Deluge Sprinkler System
    A sprinkler system in which water discharges through all sprinklers simultaneously.
  29. Diffuser
    A device used to reduce a flowing hydrant stream's pressure.
  30. Direct Pumping System
    A water supply system using one or more pumps to move water from the primary source through the treatment process.
  31. Distributor
    A smaller pipe serving individual fire hydrants and blocks of customers throughout a grid water supply system.
  32. Double-Acting Piston Pump
    A piston that can both receive and discharge water on each stroke.
  33. Dry Automatic  Standpipe System
    A standpipe system in which a standpipe contains air under pressure that holds the water beneath a dry-pipe valve.
  34. Dry-pipe Sprinkler System
    A sprinkler system in which air under pressure replaces the water in the pipe above the sprinkler valve in the riser.
  35. Energy
    The ability to do work.
  36. Feed Main
    Large pipes that supply water from the riser to cross mains in an automatic sprinkler system.
  37. Filtration
    The passage of water through filters that catch and remove suspended matter.
  38. Fire Department Connection (FDC) (Siamese Connection)
    A pipe fitting to which a fire department pumper can connect hose and pump additional water into an occupancy's fixed fire protection system.
  39. Fire Flow Test
    The procedure that determines the water flow AVAILABLE for fire fighting.
  40. Fire Stream
    A stream of plain water used for fire fighting purposes.
  41. Flow Hydrant
    The hydrant that is opened and flowed to create a pressure drop at a test hydrant.
  42. Flowmeter
    An electronic gauge that indicates water flow in gallons per minute.
  43. Flow Pressure (Velocity Pressure)
    That forward velocity pressure created at a discharge opening while water is flowing.
  44. Fog Stream (spray stream)
    A patterned fire stream composed of many individual droplets of water.
  45. Force
    The simple measure of weight.
  46. Friction Loss
    That part of the total pressure lost while forcing water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters.
  47. Gated Wye
    A wye that is equipped with valves.
  48. Gravity System
    A water supply system whose primary water source is at a higher elevation than the distribution system.
  49. Grid System
    A water supply system of interlooped pipes connected at standard intervals.
  50. Handline Nozzle
    Any nozzle designed primarily for attachment to a single, moveable, hoseline and manual control and operation by one or more firefighters.
  51. Head
    Pressure expressed in units of feet of water instead of pounds per square inch.
  52. Head Pressure
    The amount of pressure created by the height of a column of water.
  53. Hose Tender
    An apparatus designed specifically to carry large amounts of hose for use in relay operations.
  54. Hydraulic Calculation Method
    The use of mathematical calculations to determine the required piping and other design factors for an automatic sprinkler system
  55. Hydrokinetics
    The study of water in motion.
  56. Hydrostatic Test
    A test that determines whether the pump and pump piping can withstand normal operating pressures.
  57. Hydrostatics
    The study of water at rest.
  58. Impeller
    A revolving disk that throws water toward the outer edge of a centrifugal pump's casing.
  59. Indicating Butterfly Valve
    A butterfly valve with a paddle indicator or pointer arrow that shows the valve's position.
  60. Initial Attack Fire Apparatus
    An apparatus similar to a pumper but smaller and equipped with smaller pump and water tank.
  61. Intake Pressure Relief Valve (relay relief valve)
    A valve on the intake side of the pump that reduces possibility of water hammer or other significant rises in intake pressure.
  62. Joule
    A unit of work (1 calorie = 4.19 joules).
  63. Kinetic Energy
    Work being done by a substance in motion.
  64. Lantern Ring
    A spacer that provides cooling and lubrication between packing rings and pump shaft.
  65. Latent Heat of Vaporization
    The amount of heat water can absorb when it changes from a liquid to a vapor.
  66. Leader Line Wye
    A smaller wye used to bread one medium-diameter supply hose into two 1-3/4-inch or smaller attack hoses.
  67. Major Fire Fighting Vehicle
    An aircraft rescue and fire fighting apparatus with pumping capacity up to 2,000 gpm and tank capacity up to 6,000 gallons.
  68. Manifold
    A hose appliance used to divide one large-diameter supply line into smaller lines or to join several small lines into one large line.
  69. Manual Dry Standpipe
    A standpipe system that does not have an attached permanent water supply; must be charged and supplied by a fire department pumper attached to the fire department connection.
  70. Manual Wet Pipe Standpipe
    A wet standpipe system attached to a small water supply source; a fire department pumper must charge the fire department connection for the system to operate.
  71. Master Stream Nozzle
    A nozzle designed to be located and operated from a specific location and to flow larger volumes of water than firefighters could control manually.
  72. Maximum Daily Consumption
    The greatest total amount of water used during any 24-hour interval within three years.
  73. Maximum Distance Relay Method
    A relay operation in which the volume of water to be flowed is predetermined and the pumpers are spaced at the maximum  distance they can pump that amount of water through the planned hose lay.
  74. Midipumper
    A large initial attack apparatus, usually mounted on chassis over 12,000 pounds gross vehicle weight.
  75. Minipumper
    A small initial attack pumper, usually mounted on 1-ton or 1-1/2-ton chassis.
  76. Mobile Water Supply Apparatus (Tanker or Tender)
    An apparatus with large water tank for supplying extended fire fighting operations in rural areas.
  77. Necessary Fire Flow (NFF)
    See Required Fire Flow
  78. Needed Fire Flow (NFF)
    See Required Fire Flow
  79. Net Pump Discharge Pressure
    The total work done by the pump to get the water into, through, and out of the pump.
  80. Normal Operating Pressure
    Pressure in a water distribution system during normal consumption demands.
  81. Nozzle Reaction
    The counterforce that pushes back on firefighters handling the hoseline.
  82. Nurse Tanker
    A mobile water supply apparatus used as reservoir to directly supply water to attack pumpers.
  83. Outside Stem and Yolk (OS&Y) Valve
    A valve that has a yoke on the outside with a threaded stem that opens and closes the gate.
  84. Packing Gland
    A device that pushes packing material into the stuffing box where the pump shaft passes through the pump casing.
  85. Packing Ring
    A material used to create a seal where the pump shaft passes through the pump casing.
  86. Peak Hourly  Consumption
    The maximum amount of water used in any one-hour interval over the course of a day.
  87. Pipe Schedule Design
    A method of sizing pipes in an automatic sprinkler system based upon the number of sprinklers supplied.
  88. Piston Assembly Governor
    A governor that reduces or increases engine speed under the control of a rod connected to a piston in a water chamber.
  89. Pitot Gauge
    A device used to measure a flowing stream's velocity pressure.
  90. Positive Displacement Pump
    A pump in which each positive action forces a specific amount of water and/or air from the pump body.
  91. Post Indicator Valve (PIV)
    A valve whose valve stem is inside a hollow metal post attached to the valve housing.
  92. Potential Energy
    Stored energy that can perform work once it is released.
  93. Pounds per Square Inch Absolute
    Pressure above a perfect vacuum.
  94. Pounds per Square Inch Gauge
    Pressure in addition to atmospheric pressure.
  95. Power Take-Off (PTO)
    Gear on the chassis transmission that transfers power to auxiliary equipment.
  96. Preaction Sprinkler System
    A sprinkler system that a deluge-type valve and fire detection devices along with a dry-pipe system's closed sprinklers.
  97. Preservice Test
    A test performed before the purchasing fire department accepts the apparatus.
  98. Pressure
    Force per unit area.
  99. Pressure Control System Test
    A test conducted to ensure that dangerously high pressures do not build in the pump when the discharge lines are closed and the pump remains engaged.
  100. Pressure Governor
    A device that regulates centrifugal pump pressure by adjusting engine throttle.
  101. Pressure Relief Valve
    A valve intended to reduce the possibility of water hammer when valves/nozzles are closed to quickly.
  102. Primary Feeder
    The largest pipe in a grid water system.
  103. Primer
    A device that creates a partial vacuum to enable a centrifugal pump to begin drafting water from a static source.
  104. Pump-and-Roll
    The ability to pump water while moving.
  105. Pump Certification Tests
    A series of tests to determine if the pump and pump piping assembly operates properly.
  106. Pumper
    An apparatus whose main purpose is to provide water at an adequate pressure to produce an effective fire stream from a nozzle.
  107. Pumper-Tanker
    A mobile water supply apparatus equipped with large fire pump for use as attack apparatus.
  108. Quint
    An apparatus equipped with an aerial device, ground ladders, fire pump, water tank, and fire hose.
  109. Rapid Intervention Vehicle (RIV)
    An aircraft rescue and fire fighting apparatus with pumping capacity of 1,250 gpm or less and tank capacity of no more than 1,500 gallons.
  110. Relay
    A pumper operation in which a pumper at the water source pumps water through one or more hoselines to the next pumper in line.
  111. Relay Pumper (In-line Pumper)
    The pumper within a relay that receives water from the source pumper or from another relay pumper.
  112. Rescue Pumper
    An apparatus that carries all the standard engine company equipment and a larger than standard amount of rescue and extrication equipment.
  113. Required Discharge Pressure
    The appropriate pressure for a hose lay or master stream device.
  114. Required Fire Flow (Needed or Necessary Fire Flow)
    The calculated amount of water needed to extinguish a fire in a given occupancy.
  115. Residual Pressure
    That part of total available pressure not used to overcome friction loss or gravity while forcing water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters.
  116. Response Time Index (RTI)
    The relative speed of a sprinkler's operation.
  117. Riser, Automatic Sprinkler System
    Vertical piping that extends up from the sprinkler valve to the first horizontal feed main.
  118. Road Test
    A MANUFACTURER'S test to ensure that a vehicle  will operate safely once it is fully loaded with equipment and personnel and placed into service.
  119. Rotary Gear Pump
    A pump consisting of two tightly meshed gears that rotate inside a watertight case.
  120. Rotary Vane Pump
    A pump that contains a rotor mounted off-center inside the pump casing.
  121. Secondary Feeder
    An intermediate-sized pipe reinforcing grids within the loops of the primary feeder system.
  122. Sedimentation
    The use of gravity to remove particles from water.
  123. Semiautomatic Dry Standpipe
    Dry standpipe system that requires operating a remote control activation device to allow water into the piping.
  124. Service Test
    A test performed after a fire apparatus is placed into service within the department.
  125. Siamese
    A hose appliance that combines two or more hoselines into a single line.
  126. Single-Acting Piston Pump
    A piston pump in which every forward stroke causes water to be discharged and every return stroke causes the pump to will with water again.
  127. Single-Stage Centrifugal Pump
    A centrifugal pump with only one impeller.
  128. Solid Stream
    A fire stream produced from a fixed-orifice, smoothbore nozzle.
  129. Source Pumper (Supply Pumper)
    The pumper connected to the water supply at the beginning of a relay operation.
  130. Specific Heat
    The capacity of a substance to absorb heat.
  131. Speed
    The rate of travel regardless of direction.
  132. Sprinkler
    The portion of an automatic sprinkler system that delivers the water to the fire area.
  133. Stacked Tips
    A series of threaded nozzle tips whose diameters decrease as they extend from the play.
  134. Standpipe System
    A water distribution system in a building with hose discharge connections that facilitate manual fire attack in remote parts of the structure.
  135. Static Pressure
    Stored potential energy available to force water through pipe, fittings, fire hose, and adapters.
  136. Straight Stream
    A fire stream discharge from a fog-stream nozzle to emulate a solid stream.
  137. Tachometer
    A gauge that records engine speed in revolutions per minute.
  138. Tank Fill Line (Pump-to-Tank Line)
    A line that connects the discharge side of the pump to the apparatus water tank allowing he driver/operator to fill the tank without making additional connections when supplying the pump from an external supply source.
  139. Test Hydrant
    The hydrant for which a test is being conducted.
  140. Total Energy
    The sum of potential energy and kinetic energy.
  141. Trash Line
    A short 1-1/2-inch preconnected line used to replace a booster reel.
  142. Transfer Case
    A split-shaft gear case that supplies power to midship-transfer-driven pumps.
  143. Tree System
    A water distribution system with a central primary supply pipe that feeds branch distribution lines.
  144. Two-Stage Centrifugal Pump
    A centrifugal pump with two impellers.
  145. Vacuum
    Pressure less than atmospheric pressure.
  146. Velocity
    The rate of motion of a particle in a specific direction.
  147. Volute
    A water passage in a centrifugal pump; gradually increases in size as it nears the discharge outlet.
  148. Wall Post Indicator Valve (WPIV)
    A valve similar to a post indicator valve and extended through the building wall.
  149. Water
    A chemical compound that results when two parts of hydrogen (H) combine with one part oxygen (O) to form H2O.
  150. Water Curtain Nozzle
    A nozzle that produces a fan-shaped stream that acts as a water curtain between a fire and a combustible material or firefighters.
  151. Water Shuttle
    An operation in which tankers carry water from a water supply source to an incident scene and dump their loads into portable tanks.
  152. Water Thief
    A hose appliance with one intake and three gated discharges, one that is the same size as the intake and two that are smaller than the intake.
  153. Wear Ring (Clearance Ring)
    A replaceable ring that can be inserted into a centrifugal pump casing to maintain the desired spacing between the hub of the impeller and the casing.
  154. Wet Automatic Standpipe System
    A standpipe system in which the piping is filled with water at all times.
  155. Wet-pipe Sprinkler System
    A sprinkler system in which the entire piping system is filled with water at all times.
  156. Work
    The product of force multiplied by distance.
  157. Wye
    A hose appliance that divides one hoseline into two separate hoselines of equal size.
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Fire Service Hydraulics and Water Supply - 2nd Ed. Glossary
2015-01-13 15:57:09
Fire Service Hydraulics

Glossary for Fire Service Hydraulics and Water Supply - 2nd Ed. Glossary
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