Helicopter checklists and reference cards.

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Cademjohnson
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Helicopter checklists and reference cards.
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2015-01-12 17:48:30
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  1. CAMALSFOOT
    • C- Compass
    • A- Altimeter 
    • M- Manifold pressure gauge
    • A- Airspeed indicator
    • L- Landing gear indicator
    • S- Seat belts with shoulder harness
    • F- Fuel gauge for each tank
    • O- Oil temperature gauge
    • O- Oil pressure gauge
    • T- Tachometer for engine and rotor
    • 91.205
  2. FLAPE
    • F-Fuses
    • L- Landing light
    • A- Anticollision light
    • P- Position light
    • E- Electrical source
    • 91.205
  3. GRABCARD
    • G- Generator/alternator
    • R- Radios: navigation and communication
    • A- sensitive Altimeter
    • B- Ball (turn and slip indicator)
    • C- Clock with second hand or digital
    • A- Attitude indicator 
    • R- Rate of turn (turn coordinator)
    • D- Directional gyro
  4. AAV1ATE
    • A- Annual inspection 91.409
    • A- Airworthiness directives 91.403
    • V- VOR check, every 30 days 91.171
    • 1- 100 hour inspection 91.409
    • A- Altimeter system, 24 months 91.411
    • T- Transponder, 24 months 91.413
    • E- Electronic locator transmitter, 12 months 91.207
  5. WRIMTIM
    • W- Weather
    • R- Radios 
    • I- Instruments
    • M- Minimums
    • T- Time to missed approach
    • I- Identify morse code
    • M- Missed approach point and procedure
  6. Reports to ATC at all times
    • A- Altitude change
    • C- Can't climb or descend 500 feet per minute
    • M- Missed approach
    • E- Equipment malfunction: Tail#, Equipment affected, Capability, Assistance needed
    • W- Weather (unforecast)
    • A- Airspeed change: +- 10 knots, +-5% (greater of)
    • S- Safety of flight
    • H- Holds: entering or leaving
    • 91.183 5-3-3
  7. Reports when not in radar contact
    • C- Compulsory reporting points
    • O- Outer marker
    • F- Final approach fix
    • F- Fix that defines the route (airway change)
    • E- ETA error more than 2 minutes
    • 5-3-3
  8. Position report items
    • I- Identification
    • P- Position
    • A- Altitude
    • T- Time 
    • E- ETA and name of next fix or reporting point
    • N- Name of next seceding  fix or reporting point
    • R- Remarks
    • 5-3-2
  9. Established in a turn
    • Power: ASI
    • Pitch: Altimeter
    • Bank: TC
  10. Starting a decent
    • Pitch: AI
    • Power: MAP
    • Bank: DG
  11. AIM chapters
    • 1- Air navigation
    • 2- Lights and visual aids
    • 3- Airspace
    • 4- ATC
    • 5- Air traffic procedures
    • 6- Emergency procedures
    • 7- Safety of flight
    • 8- Medical
    • 9- Charts
    • 10- Helicopter operations
    • 11- Appendix
    • 12- Pilot/controller glossary
  12. IFR takeoff minimums
    • No takeoff minimums for part 91
    • 1/2 mile visibility for part 135 and others
    • 91.175
  13. Broken VSI glass
    • ASI: reads high
    • Altimeter: reads high 
    • VSI: reverses
  14. Blocked pitot
    • ASI: shows zero
    • Altimeter: works
    • VSI: works
  15. Localizer
    • The antenna is at the far end of the runway.
    • Glideslope transmitter is 750 to 1250 feet down the runway.
    • Glideslope transmitter is 250 to 650 feet offset.
    • Usable up to 10NM out at 35 degrees.
    • Usable up to 18NM out at 10 degrees.
    • Full scale deflection= 2.5 degrees
    • 700 feet wide at threshold.
    • 3 degree slope.
    • MM at 200'AGL.
    • OM at 1400'AGL.
  16. To get below MDA, or DA/DH
    • Normal decent rate and procedures.
    • Visibility not less than approached used.
    • At least one ground reference in sight.
    • Ground references: ALS (if below 100', red sidebars must also be in site.)
    • Threshold (markings, lights)
    • REIL
    • VASI
    • TZ (markings, lights)
    • Runway (markings, lights)
    • 91.175
  17. Helicopter approach (to a specific landing site)
    • Will be aligned within 30 degrees of landing site.
    • Pilot is required to maintain published minimum visibility throughout the visual segment.
    • Advise ATC at MAP (canceling IFR, or going missed)
    • One reference in sight:FATO (Final Approach and Take Off) zone or lights.
    • TLOF (Touchdown and LiftOfF) zone or lights.
    • Windsock and beacon should be within 500' of TLOF.
    • 10-1-3
  18. Surface analysis chart
    • Issued every 3 hours.
    • Shows pressure systems, fronts, wind, temperature, dew points, obstructions to vision.
    • Covers 48 states.
  19. Radio failure in IMC
    • Route: most recent of
    • A- Assigned
    • V- Vectored
    • E- Expected
    • F- Filed
    • Altitude: highest of
    • M- MEA
    • E- Expected
    • A- Assigned
    • If given a LCL, leave as close as possible to EFC time, or ETA filed.
    • 91.185, 6-4-1
  20. List of weather charts for planning
    • Surface analysis chart
    • Weather depiction chart 
    • Radar summary chart
    • Significant weather prognostic chart
    • Short range surface prognostic chart
    • Constant pressure analysis chart
    • Freezing level graphics
    • Found at ADDS.com
  21. Weather depiction chart
    • Issued every 3 hours
    • Begins at 01z each day
    • Shows: 
    • Sky cover
    • Cloud heights
    • Weather
    • Visibility
    • Obstructions etc...
  22. Equipment malfunction reports in controlled airspace
    • Loss of VOR, ADF, or navigation receiver
    • GPS anomolies
    • Loss of ILS, complete or partial
    • Impairment of air to ground communication
    • Loss of any other equipment that may impair IFR safety
    • 5-3-3(h)
  23. When to execute missed approach
    • At MAP if runway environment is not in sight
    • At DA on glideslope if runway environment is not in sight
    • If circling, if visual contact with runway is lost
    • If instructed by ATC
    • Any time the pilot determines that a safe landing can not be made
  24. Climb gradient to rate-of-climb
    • Ground speed 
    • Divided by 60
    • Times climb gradient
    • Equals rate-of-climb in feet per minute
  25. Center weather advisory
    • Valid max 2 hours
    • If conditions still exist, a statement will be included in the CWA
    • For enroute and terminal environment
    • Not for flight planning
  26. IFR clearance
    • C- Clearance (to destination, or EFC fix)
    • R- Route 
    • A- Altitude
    • F- Frequency of ARTCC to be used
    • T- Transponder code
  27. SRM
    The art and science of managing all the resources (on board and outside) available to a single pilot (prior and during flight) to insure the successful outcome of the flight.
  28. Oxygen requirements
    • 12,500 to 14,000: Flight crew must use after 30 minutes.
    • 14,001 to 15,000: Flight crew must use continuously.
    • Above 15,000:Flight crew must use, all passengers must be provided.
    • 91.211
  29. SRM skills
    • C- CFIT
    • A- ADM
    • R- Risk management
    • A- Automation management
    • T- Task management
    • S- Situational awareness
  30. IFR rating is required
    • Under IFR rules 
    • Weather less than VFR in controlled airspace
    • Class A airspace
    • SVFR at night
  31. ADM
    A systematic approach to the mental process used by pilots to consistently determine the best course of action in response to a set of circumstances.
  32. IFR flight plan
    • At primary airport: CIG 1000' AGL or 400' above the lowest approach minima (which ever is highest) and VIS 2SM
    • At alternate airport: CIG 200' above lowest minima, 1SM VIS but not less than VIS on the approach
    • 91.169
  33. Blocked static port
  34. ASI: low in climb, high in decent
    • Altimeter: frozen
    • VSI: frozen
  35. IFR pilot currency
    • 6- 6 instrument approaches
    • 6- 6 months prior 6 month grace period
    • H- Holding practice 
    • I- Intercepting radials or courses
    • T- Tracking radials or courses
    • 61.57(c)
  36. Preflight planning list
    • N- NOTAMS
    • W- Weather 
    • K- Known ATC delays
    • R- Runway lengths and information
    • A- Alternate airports
    • F- Fuel requirements
    • T- Take off and landing performance information
  37. OM substitutes
    • Compass locator 
    • ASR
    • PAR
    • VOR or NDB cross radial
    • DME
    • GPS
    • 91.175
  38. Marker beacons
    • OM: blue. --- 4200' long 2400' wide 4 to 7 miles out
    • MM: amber .-.-. 3000' to 6000' from threshold
    • IM: White  ....
    • Back course: white .. .. ..
  39. Fuel requirements for IFR
    • Fuel to primary airport plus 30 minutes
    • IF at ETA +1 hour, the CIG is less than 1000' or 400' above the lowest approach minima, and VIS at least 2 SM, then you must have fuel to then fly to an alternate airport, and still have 30 minutes reserve.
  40. SIGMET
    • Issued every 4 hours
    • Hazardous for light aircraft 
    • Icing not associated with thunderstorms
    • Turbulence
    • Dust storms
  41. Convective SIGMET
    • Issued at H+55
    • Wind at the surface over 55 knots
    • Hail over 3/4 inch diameter
    • Tornadoes
    • Lines of thunderstorms
    • Heavy rain, 40% of an area 3000 square miles
  42. RVR
    • 1600'=1/4 mile
    • 2400'=1/2 mile
    • 3200'=5/8 mile
    • 4000'=3/4 mile
    • 4500'=7/8 mile
    • 5000'=1 mile 
    • 6000'=1 1/4 miles
  43. 5 P model of SRM
    • Plan: weather, route, delays, fuel,etc.
    • Plane: mechanical, databases, backups
    • Pilot: IMSAFE
    • Passengers: Reason for the flight 
    • Programming: Clearances, GPS
    • Check the 5 Ps at preflight, hourly, FAF, emergency, etc.
  44. Using alternate static
    • ASI: reads high
    • Altimeter: reads high
    • VSI: shows a momentary climb
  45. Helicopter approach PinS
    • MAP is either more than 2SM from landing site, or it requires turns around obstacles over 30 degrees
    • Must be able to maintain VFR throughout the visual segment
  46. Other airspace
    • P- Parachute area
    • A- Airport advisor area
    • T- TRSA (doesn't fit into any other airspace category)
    • T- TFR
    • M- MTR
    • A- ADIZ
    • N- NSA
    • V- VFR routes
  47. Hold clearance read back
    • Direction of holding fix
    • Name of holding fix
    • Radial, bearing, or route to hold on
    • Leg length (miles, or minutes)
    • Direction of turns
    • EFC time
    • Any other pertinent information
  48. Magnetic compass errors
    • V- Variation
    • D- Deviation
    • M- Magnetic dip
    • O- Oscillation
    • N- Northern/southern turning
    • A- Acceleration
  49. ATC light gun signals
    • Steady green: cleared for takeoff, cleared to land
    • Flashing green: cleared to taxi, return for landing
    • Steady red: stop, continue circling
    • Flashing red: clear the runway, do not land
    • Flashing white: return to starting point, N/A
    • Alternating red/green:extreme caution, extreme caution
  50. Radar summary chart
    • Updated every hour
    • Valid 35 minutes past each hour
    • Echoes of precipitation
    • Cloud tops
    • Cell movements
  51. Contact approach
    • Must be requested
    • Must be clear of clouds, 1 mile VIS
    • Must be an airport with an instrument approach
    • Must maintain approved separation
    • 5-4-25
  52. Engine/drive system failure
    • Engine failure:
    • D- Decrease in noise
    • O- Oil pressure light, gauge
    • N- Nose left yaw
    • E- Engine RPM decreasing

    • Drive system failure:
    • D- Decreasing rotor RPM
    • I- Increased yaw, left or right
    • V- Vibration or unusual noise
    • E- Engine RPM increasing
    • POH 3-1
  53. IFR terms
    • LIFR: ceiling less than 500' visibility less than 1 mile
    • IFR: ceiling 500' to 1000' visibility 1 to 3 miles
    • MVFR: ceiling 1000' to 3000' visibility 3 to 5 miles
    • VFR: ceiling over 3000' visibility over 5 miles
  54. Density altitude formula
    • Current temp
    • Minus standard temp (at this altitude)
    • Times 120
    • Plus elevation
    • =density altitude
  55. NOTAMS
    • NOTAM(D) distant
    • FDC NOTAM
    • Pointer NOTAM
    • Military NOTAM
    • NTAP issued every 28 days, contains NOTAM(D) and FDC NOTAMs
  56. Situational awareness risk elements
    • Pilot: fitness to fly, competency, experience
    • Plane: airworthiness, performance, limitations, equipment
    • Environment: weather, conditions,services
    • Operation: purpose of the flight, passengers, etc.
  57. Winds and temps aloft FB
    • Issued 4 times daily
    • No reading within 1500' of the surface
    • Used for: most favorable altitude, possible icing areas, inversions, turbulence
  58. Diverse departure assesment
    • 40 to 1 slope from DER at 152FPNM
    • Out 25 miles(non mountainous) 46 miles(mountainous)
    • If an obstacle protrudes, they will:
    • Raise visibility minimums
    • Raise climb gradient
    • Publish a SID or ODP
    • Or any combination
    • Pilots are expected to:
    • Climb at least 200FPNM
    • Be at 35'AGL at DER
    • No turns before 400'AGL
    • 5-2-8
  59. Visual approach
    • Can be initiated by the Controller
    • Must have 1000' CIG and 3SM VIS or more
    • Must have airport or preceding plane in sight
    • 5-4-23
  60. NDB service volumes
    • Compass locator: less than 25 watts, 15NM range
    • MH:less than 50 watts, 25NM range
    • H: 50 to 1999 watts, 50NM range
    • HH: 2000 watts, 75NM range

    Disturbances: lightning, precipitation static, distant station interference
  61. GPS satellites
    • 24 total
    • 5 always observable
    • Minimum of 4 always above the mask angle
    • 3=2D
    • 4=3D
    • 5=3D and RAIM
    • 6=3D and RAIM, and removes corrupt signals
  62. GPS TSO types
    • TSO-C129: airborne GPS, non WAAS
    • TSO-C196: aircraft based sensor, non WAAS
    • TSO-C145: airborne sensors augmented by WAAS
    • TSO-C146: stand alone airborne GPS augmented by WAAS
  63. CDI scale changes for GPS
    • Terminal mode: +- 1NM
    • Approach mode: 0.3 to 1 NM
  64. LDA
    • Course width between 3 and 6 degrees
    • Some have a glide slope
    • Not aligned with the runway
    • If aligned within 30 degrees, straight in minimums will be published
    • If more than 30 degrees off, only circling minimums will be published
  65. SDF
    • May or may not be aligned with the runway
    • Fixed signal, either 6 or 12 degrees
    • Usable indications 35 degrees to either side
  66. Non precision approaches
    • LNAV
    • VOR
    • TACAN
    • NDB
    • LOC
    • ASR
    • LDA
    • SDF
  67. PAR
    • Precision approach
    • Controller guidance
    • Provides azimuth and elevation
  68. ASR
    • Non precision approach
    • Controller guidance
    • Provides azimuth only
  69. Spatial disorientation
    • "Conflict between central and peripheral vision"
    • Visual: eyes
    • Vestibular: inner ears
    • Kinesthetic: muscles, nerves, tendons
  70. Hypoxia
    • Hypoxic: lack of oxygen
    • Hypemic: blood can't carry the oxygen (smoking)
    • Stagnant: poor circulation
    • Histoxic: blood can't produce the oxygen (alcohol, drugs)
  71. 3P model of ADM
    • Perceive: 
    • P- Pilot
    • A- Aircraft
    • V- enVironment
    • E- External pressure
    • Process:
    • C- Consequences
    • A- Alternatives
    • R- Reality
    • E-External pressures
    • Perform:
    • T- Transfer
    • E- Eliminate
    • A-Accept
    • M- Mitigate
  72. VOR service volumes
    • Terminal: 1,000' to 12,000' 25 miles
    • Low altitude: 1,000 to 18,000 40 miles
    • High altitude: 1,000 to 14,500, 40 miles. 14500 to 18,000, 100 miles. 18,000 to 45,000, 130 miles. 45,000 to 60,000, 100 miles.
  73. ILS components
    • Guidance info: localizer, glideslope
    • Range info: marker beacons, DME
    • Visual info: approach lights, runway lights, etc.
    • Frequency range: 108.0 to 111.95 odd tenths
  74. Blocked pitot and drain hole
    • ASI: high in a climb, low in a decent
    • Altimeter: works 
    • VSI: works
  75. Pressure altitude formula
    • Standard pressure
    • Minus current pressure
    • Times 1,000
    • Plus elevation
    • Equals pressure altitude
  76. IFR approach radio calls with no tower
    • 5 to 10 minutes from IAF with intentions
    • Departing IAF, starting approach
    • Procedure turn inbound
    • FAF, state intended runway
    • Short final, notice of imminent landing
  77. Straight and level
    • Pitch: altimeter
    • Bank: DG
    • Power: ASI
  78. Special use airspace
    • W- Warning
    • R- Restricted
    • A- Alert
    • P- Prohibited
    • M- MOA
    • C- Controlled firing area

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