Overview of the central and peripheral nervous system: gross structure and imaging

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  1. What is the central nervous system defined as in vertebrates?
    The part of the nervous system enclosed in meninges
  2. The central nervous system is comprised of...?
    the brain and spinal cord
  3. The peripheral nervous system connects ...?
    The CNS with the organs and limbs
  4. What are the subdivisions of the peripheral nervous system?
    Autonomic and somatic nervous systems
  5. What areas is the brain divided into?
    • Prosencephalon - telencephalon and diencephalon
    • Mesencephalon
    • Rhombencephalon - metencephalon and myelencephalon
  6. What makes up the telencephalon?
    The two cerebral hemispheres
  7. List the different lobes the cerebral hemisphere is divided into
    Frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, temporal lobe
  8. Which ventricle is found in each cerebral hemisphere?
    The lateral ventricle
  9. What is a cerebral hemisphere composed of?
    Surface grey matter called the cerebral cortex, underlying white matter and deep masses of grey matter called basal nuclei
  10. What is the corpus callosum?
    A mass of fibres that connect right and left cerebral hemispheres
  11. Which of the cranial nerves does the diencephalon give rise to?
    The optic nerve (CN II)
  12. What ventricle does the diencephalon contain?
    The third ventricle
  13. Which gland is located on the roof of the third ventricle?
    The pineal gland
  14. Which gland is located ventrally?
    The pituitary gland
  15. What four regions can the diencephalon be divided into?
    The thalamus, hypothalamus, sub thalamus and epithalamus
  16. What cranial nerves does the mesencephalon give rise to?
    Oculomotor (CN III) and trochlear (CN IV)
  17. What two elevation make up the tectum (roof) of the midbrain?
    Rostral colliculus and caudal colliculus
  18. Fibres located along the ventral surface of the midbrain constitute the ...?
    crus cerebri
  19. What can the metencephalon be divided into?
    The pons and cerebellum
  20. The pons contains the rostral end of which ventricle?
    The fourth ventricle
  21. What cranial nerve does the pons gives rise to?
    Trigeminal nerve (CN V)
  22. What areas is the cerebellum divided into?
    The vermis and bilateral hemispheres
  23. The myelencephalon contains most of which ventricle?
    The fourth ventricle
  24. Which cranial nerves does the myelencephalon give rise to?
    Abducent (VI), Facial (VII), Oculomotor (VIII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), Vagus (X), Accessory (XI), Hypoglossal (XII)
  25. What structures are present along the ventral surface of the myelencephalon?
    The Pyramids
  26. What are the three cranial fossas?
    The rostral cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa and caudal cranial fossa
  27. How many cranial nerves are there?
    12 pairs
  28. Which branch of the spinal nerves is a) afferent/sensory b) efferent/motor?
    • a) dorsal 
    • b) ventral
  29. What does the somatic NS control?
    Voluntary movement
  30. What does the autonomic nervous system control?
    It functions unconsciously to maintain body homeostasis
  31. What are the functional divisions of the CNS?
    Forebrain, brainstem, cerebellum
  32. What are the neurological signs typical of forebrain dysfunction?
    Mentation - normal, obtunded or stupor (less likely).  Change in behaviour and seizures can be reported.  Contralateral proprioceptive deficits, contralateral menace response absent, circling towards the side of the lesion.
  33. What are the neurological signs of cerebellar dysfunction?
    Normal mentation.  Hypermetria, dysmetria (ipsilateral).  Intention tremors.  Can have head tilt (contralateral).
  34. What are the neurological signs of brainstem dysfunction?
    Mentation - normal, obtunded, stupor or coma. Head tilt and wide base stance can be seen.  Cranial nerves III-XII can show deficits.  Ipsilateral proprioceptive deficits.
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Overview of the central and peripheral nervous system: gross structure and imaging
2015-01-11 20:07:00
Nervous system Imaging

Vet Med - Module 8
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