Range of Motion exercise are design to stretch and contract the _____ muscle of a joint to preserve as much muscle function and joint mobility as possible.
Antagonistic muscle arrangement are necessary because a contracting muscle can only______ a bone in one direction.
when the muscle relaxes and lengthens, it doesn't exert force and cannot _____ the bone the other way.
The parts of the brain that generates the nerve impulses that initiate voluntary movement are the _______ lobes of the _____.
The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the _____.
The muscle that helps to stabilize or stead a joint to make a more precise movement possible
in the brain, impulses for movement come from the _____.
Frontal Lobes of Cerebrum
The more immobile or stationary attachment of the muscle are called?
The more mobile attachment of the muscle is called?
The brain's ability to know where our muscles are and what they are doing, w/o our having to look @ them and be aware of them
There are 3 sources of Energy for muscles.
ATP, creatine phosphate, glycogen
Direct sources of Energy for muscle contraction?
Energy source that isn't stored in large amounts in muscle fibers and is depleted in a few seconds.
this energy source is broken down to make more phosphate to add to ADP to make ATP. The waste product is excreted through the kidneys.
Most abundant energy source in muscle fibers.
Glucose + O2 => CO2 + H2O + ATP + Heat
The enlarged tip of the motor neuron(end of neuron), it contains sacs of the neurotransmitter ACh
Located at the end of the motor neuron is synaptic vesicles which contains neurotransmitter. Action potential travels down motor neuron end, it cause synaptic vessicle to release this neurotransmitter that will cross the synapse to bind with receptors.
Cell membrane of muscle fiber, contains inactivator cholinesterase
The small space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma (membrane of muscle fiber)
inactivates acetylcholine (ACh) to stop the action or breaks it down.
Within the muscle fiber, Myofibril, are thousands of individual contracting units. between 2 Z-band
Sarcomeres arranged end-to-end in cylinders
Enzyme. In the center of the sarcomere.
at the end of the Z-lines are thin filaments that contain this protein.
Blocks the myosin head from crawling/sliding up the actin
high Ca++ => binds to troponin => moves tropomyosin out of the way.
low Ca++ => troponin goes back => makes tropomyosin block again
Troponin binds tropomyosin to actin
The outside of sarcolemma has a (+) charge relative to the inside, Na+ are more abundant outside the cell, and (K+) and (-) ions are more abundant inside cell.
The sarcolemma now has (-) charge outside and (+) charge inside. Na+ ions rush into the cell.
after depolarization, this action potential involves the outflow of K+ ions that will restore the (+) charge to the outside of the sarcolemma.
To decrease the angle of a joint
To increase angle of joint
to move closer to midline
to move away from midline
Dorisflexion, Plantar Flexion
to move a bone around its longitudinal axis
regulates system for homeostasis. detect changes and feel sensations, initiate appropriate responses o changes, and organize information for immediate or later use.
the brain and spinal cord are apart of what system?
Cranial and spinal nerves are apart of what system?
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is apart of which division?
Relays information to and from CNS
Contains nucleus of the neuron.
Carries impulses away from the cell body
carries impulses toward cell body
provides electrical insulation for neurons
type of cells found throughout the entire PNS. insulate axons.
essential for regeneration of damaged axon and dendrite, made of nuclei & cytyoplasm
In the CNS, the myelin sheath is made by cells called?
Carry impulses from receptors to CNS
Carry impulses from CNS to effectors.
Found entirely within the CNS. Major neuron of the CNS. Analyzes, process information, or sorting information out.
In cross section of spinal cord, consists of cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons
In cross section of spinal cord, made of myelinated axon and dendrites.
Carry impulses to the brain. Sensory impulses of the spinal cord. (Left Side Spinal Cord)
carry impulses away from the brain. Motor impulses of the spinal cord. (Right side Spinal Cord)
How many pairs of spinal nerves?
how many cervical spinal nerves?
how many thoracic spinal nerves?
how many lumbar spinal nerves?
how many sacral spinal nerves?
how many coccygeal spinal nerves?
involuntary response to a stimulus that is an automatic action stimulated by a specific change of some kind. doesn't depend on brain but the brain is aware.
Spinal Cord Reflexes.
the pathway that nerve impulses travel when a relfex is elicited.
reflex arc pathway
In reflex arc, this "part" detects a change (the stimulus) and generates impulses.
In reflex arc, this "part" transmits impulses from receptors to the CNS
In reflex arc, this "part" contains one or more synapses (Interneurons may be part of the pathway)
In reflex arc, this "part" transmit impulses from the CNS to the effector
In reflex arc, this "part" performs the characteristic action.
the ventricles (cavities) of the brain contains CHOROID PLEXUS, a capillary network that takes blood plasma and forms this.
autonomic functions such as breathing, BP, HR,
In the autonomic nervous system (ANS) the division responsible for "flight-or-fight", stressful situations.
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
In the autonomic nervous system (ANS) the division responsible for "Rest-and-Digest", important for homeostasis.
Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)
Starts in middle of CNS (middle of spinal cord). Starts off with 2 chain of axon. From short axon to longer axon.
Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
Starts in neuron @ near brain stem and bottom of spinal cord. Starts off with 2 chain of axon. From Longer axon to Short axon.
Blood flow_____ during SNS in Autonomic Nervous System
Blood flow _____ during PNS in Autonomic Nervous System.
Heart outputs blood increases during SNS or PNS?
Heart outputs blood Decreases during SNS or PNS?
In Sympathetic Nervous System, sweat glands Increase or Decrease?
In Parasympathetic Nervous System, saliva glands Increase or Decrease?