Chapter 7 & 8 Quiz

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Chapter 7 & 8 Quiz
2015-01-12 02:07:49
Anatomy Physiology

Chapter 7 & 8 quiz anatomy and physiology
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  1. Range of Motion exercise are design to stretch and contract the _____ muscle of a joint to preserve as much muscle function and joint mobility as possible.
    Antagonistic Muscle
  2. Antagonistic muscle arrangement are necessary because a contracting muscle can only______ a bone in one direction.
  3. when the muscle relaxes and lengthens, it doesn't exert force and cannot _____ the bone the other way.
  4. The parts of the brain that generates the nerve impulses that initiate voluntary movement are the _______ lobes of the _____.
    Frontal, Cerebrum
  5. The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary movement is the _____.
  6. The muscle that helps to stabilize or stead a joint to make a more precise movement possible
  7. in the brain, impulses for movement come from the _____.
    Frontal Lobes of Cerebrum
  8. The more immobile or stationary attachment of the muscle are called?
  9. The more mobile attachment of the muscle is called?
  10. The brain's ability to know where our muscles are and what they are doing, w/o our having to look @ them and be aware of them
  11. There are 3 sources of Energy for muscles.
    ATP, creatine phosphate, glycogen
  12. Direct sources of Energy for muscle contraction?
  13. Energy source that isn't stored in large amounts in muscle fibers and is depleted in a few seconds.
  14. this energy source is broken down to make more phosphate to add to ADP to make ATP.  The waste product is excreted through the kidneys.
    Creatine Phosphate
  15. Most abundant energy source in muscle fibers. 
    Glucose + O2 => CO2 + H2O + ATP + Heat
  16. The enlarged tip of the motor neuron(end of neuron), it contains sacs of the neurotransmitter ACh
  17. Located at the end of the motor neuron is synaptic vesicles which contains neurotransmitter. Action potential travels down motor neuron end, it cause synaptic vessicle to release this neurotransmitter that will cross the synapse to bind with receptors.
  18. Cell membrane of muscle fiber, contains inactivator cholinesterase
  19. The small space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma (membrane of muscle fiber)
  20. inactivates acetylcholine (ACh) to stop the action or breaks it down.
  21. Within the muscle fiber, Myofibril, are thousands of individual contracting units. between 2 Z-band
  22. Sarcomeres arranged end-to-end in cylinders
  23. Enzyme. In the center of the sarcomere.
  24. at the end of the Z-lines are thin filaments that contain this protein.
  25. Blocks the myosin head from crawling/sliding up the actin
  26. high Ca++ =>  binds to troponin => moves tropomyosin out of the way.

    low Ca++ => troponin goes back => makes tropomyosin block again

    Troponin binds tropomyosin to actin
  27. The outside of sarcolemma has a (+) charge relative to the inside, Na+ are more abundant outside the cell, and (K+) and (-) ions are more abundant inside cell.
  28. The sarcolemma now has (-) charge outside and (+) charge inside.  Na+ ions rush into the cell.
  29. after depolarization, this action potential involves the outflow of K+ ions that will restore the (+) charge to the outside of the sarcolemma.
  30. To decrease the angle of a joint
    • Flexion
  31. To increase angle of joint
    • Extension
  32. to move closer to midline
    • Adduction
  33. to move away from midline
    • Abduction
  34. supination, pronation
  35. Dorisflexion, Plantar Flexion
  36. Inversion, Eversion
  37. to move a bone around its longitudinal axis
  38. regulates system for homeostasis. detect changes and feel sensations, initiate appropriate responses o changes, and organize information for immediate or later use.
    Nervous system
  39. the brain and spinal cord are apart of what system?
  40. Cranial and spinal nerves are apart of what system?
  41. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is apart of which division?
  42. Relays information to and from CNS
  43. Contains nucleus of the neuron.
    Cell body.
  44. Carries impulses away from the cell body
    • Axon
  45. carries impulses toward cell body
    • Dendrite
  46. provides electrical insulation for neurons
    • myelin sheath
  47. type of cells found throughout the entire PNS. insulate axons.
    • Schwann Cell
  48. essential for regeneration of damaged axon and dendrite, made of nuclei & cytyoplasm
  49. In the CNS, the myelin sheath is made by cells called?
  50. Carry impulses from receptors to CNS
    Carry impulses from CNS to effectors.
  51. Found entirely within the CNS. Major neuron of the CNS.  Analyzes, process information, or sorting information out.
    • Interneurons
  52. In cross section of spinal cord, consists of cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons
    Gray matter
  53. In cross section of spinal cord, made of myelinated axon and dendrites.
    White matter
  54. Carry impulses to the brain. Sensory impulses of the spinal cord. (Left Side Spinal Cord)
    • Ascending tracts
  55. carry impulses away from the brain.  Motor impulses of the spinal cord. (Right side Spinal Cord)
    • Descending tract.
  56. How many pairs of spinal nerves?
    31 pairs
  57. how many cervical spinal nerves?
  58. how many thoracic spinal nerves?
  59. how many lumbar spinal nerves?
  60. how many sacral spinal nerves?
  61. how many coccygeal spinal nerves?
  62. involuntary response to a stimulus that is an automatic action stimulated by a specific change of some kind.  doesn't depend on brain but the brain is aware.
    Spinal Cord Reflexes.
  63. the pathway that nerve impulses travel when a relfex is elicited.
    reflex arc pathway
  64. In reflex arc, this "part" detects a change (the stimulus) and generates impulses.
  65. In reflex arc, this "part" transmits impulses from receptors to the CNS
    sensory neurons
  66. In reflex arc, this "part" contains one or more synapses (Interneurons may be part of the pathway)
  67. In reflex arc, this "part" transmit impulses from the CNS to the effector
    motor neurons
  68. In reflex arc, this "part" performs the characteristic action.
  69. the ventricles (cavities) of the brain contains CHOROID PLEXUS, a capillary network that takes blood plasma and forms this.
    Cerebrospinal Fluid
  70. autonomic functions such as breathing, BP, HR,
  71. In the autonomic nervous system (ANS) the division responsible for "flight-or-fight", stressful situations.
    Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
  72. In the autonomic nervous system (ANS) the division responsible for "Rest-and-Digest", important for homeostasis.
    Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS)
  73. Starts in middle of CNS (middle of spinal cord). Starts off with 2 chain of axon. From short axon to longer axon.
    Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS)
  74. Starts in neuron @ near brain stem and bottom of spinal cord. Starts off with 2 chain of axon. From Longer axon to Short axon.
  75. Blood flow_____ during SNS in Autonomic Nervous System
  76. Blood flow _____ during PNS in Autonomic Nervous System.
  77. Heart outputs blood increases during SNS or PNS?
  78. Heart outputs blood Decreases during SNS or PNS?
  79. In Sympathetic Nervous System, sweat glands Increase or Decrease?
  80. In Parasympathetic Nervous System, saliva glands Increase or Decrease?