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What is the spinal cord?
It is an extension of the CNS into the axial skeleton
How do axons enter and exit the CNS?
Via nerve roots communicating with the PNS and ANS
What type of matter is found in the a) outside b) inside of the spinal cord?
- a) white matter
- b) grey matter
The spinal cord transmits ascending ____ information and descending _____ information?
What exactly is the vertebral canal?
The hole in the middle of the vertebral column
What is the vertebra canal and spinal cord surrounded by?
What are meninges?
Membranes that cover the CNS
What are the functions of the meninges?
Physical support, enclose CSF circulation, involved in CSF production/absorption
List the different layers of meninges from outside to inside
Dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
Where is CSF located?
In the sub-arachnoid space
Which layers of the meninges are intimately related to each other/with the CNS?
- Dura and arachnoid are intimately related.
- Pia and CNS are intimately related.
Describe the difference in attachment of the dura to the skull and spinal column
In the skull, the dura contributes to the inner periosteum of the calvarium fusing the meninges to the calvarium. Whereas in the spinal column the dura is a free tube that is only tethered at the ends (the brain stem and filum terminale) and along the length by nerve roots which have meningeal ensheathment.
What is the vertebral formula for a) dog b) horse c) cow?
- a) C7, T13, L7, S3, Cd20
- b) C7, T18, L6, S5, Cd20
- c) C7, T13, L6, S5, Cd18
True or false: the dura continues further caudally than the spinal cord?
What is the term for the position where the spinal cord terminates?
The cauda equina
With regards to sampling, what is the cauda equina also a position for?
Performing a lumbar cistern
What shape does the grey matter in the middle of the spinal cord resemble on histology?
The white matter spinal cord tracts can be divided into three areas, what are these?
Dorsal, lateral and ventral funiculi
How is grey matter organised within the spinal cord?
Somatic afferent, visceral afferent (cell body dorsal root ganglion), visceral efferent, somatic efferent (ventral horn)
What are the cranial and caudal intumescences?
These are areas where the spinal cord gets thicker. In these areas the limbs are controlled. More neuronal cell bodies are needed to do this and so the ventral root swells, increasing the diameter of the spinal cord.
The cranial intumescence is also known as the ... plexus? The caudal intumescence is also known as the ... plexus?
What do the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses each control?
- Brachial - thoracic limb
- Lumbosacral - pelvic limb, sphincters and tail
Which spinal cords are associated with the a) brachial plexus b) lumbosacral plexus?
The radial, and median & ulnar nerves all emerge from the brachial plexus, what muscles do they control?
- Radial - triceps brachi, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis, common digital extensor
- Median and ulnar nerves - flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor carpi radialis, SDFT, DDFT
The femoral, sciatic, fibular and tibular nerves all emerge from the lumbosacral plexus, what muscles do they control?
- Femoral - quadriceps, iliopsoas and sartorial
- Sciatic - biceps femoris, semimembranosus, semitendinosus
- Fibular - peroneus longus, long digital extensor, cranial tibial
- Tibial - SDFT, DDFT, gastrocnemius
Which reflex tests the femoral nerve?
The patellar reflex