AP Terms

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AP Terms
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2015-01-12 21:52:53
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  1. Syntax
    arrangement of words and the order of grammatical elements in a sentence
  2. Ethos
    establish credibility by appealing to people's sense of what is right (ethical)
  3. Pathos
    emotional appeal- works on the heart (empathy, sympathy)
  4. Logos
    logical appeal-works on the mind and what is rational (logical)
  5. Diction
    word choice intended to convey a certain effect
  6. Tone
    writer or speakers attitude towards subject, speaker or audience
  7. Imagery
    consists of words or phrases a writer will use to represent people, objects, actions, feelings, and ideas descriptively by appealing to any of the five senses
  8. Figurative Language
    words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of something else (metaphors and similes)
  9. Point of Veiw
    The vantage point from which a piece is told (story, essay, speech, etc.)
  10. Details
    the facts revealed by the author or speaker that will support the attitude or tone in a piece of writing
  11. Voice
    the individual writing style of an author
  12. Repetition
    Reuse of the same words,phrases, or ideas for rhetorical effect, usually to emphasize a point
  13. Parallelism
    Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses
  14. Paradox
    A statement that seems contradictory but is nevertheless true
  15. Elevated Language
    formal, dignitifed language; it often uses more elaborate figures of speech
  16. Inverted Syntax
    Inverted order of words in a sentence (variation in the subject-verb-object order)
  17. Alliteration
    Repetition of the same sound beginning several words in sequence
  18. Allusion
    Brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fictitious, or to a work of art
  19. Anaphora
    Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or lines
  20. Antimetabole
    Repetition of words in reverse order
  21. Antithesis
    Opposition, or contrast, of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel constuction
  22. Archaic Diction
    Old-fashioned or outdated choice of words
  23. Asyndeton
    • Omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words
    • Ex. Pay any price, bare any burden, meet any hardship
  24. Cumulative Sentence
    Sentence that completes the main idea at the beginning of the sentence, and then builds on
  25. Hortative Sentence
    Sentence that exhorts, advises, calls to action
  26. Imperative Sentence
    sentence used to command, enjoin, implore, or entreat
  27. Declarative Sentence
    sentence that makes a statement or “declares” something
  28. Juxtaposition
    placement of two things closely together to emphasize comparisons or contrasts
  29. Metaphor
    figure of speech that says one thing is another in order to explain by comparison
  30. Universal Symbol
    archetype: an original model or type after which other similar things are patterned; a prototype
  31. Contextual Symbol
    a literary symbol; can be a setting,character, action, object, name, or anything else in a work that maintains its literal significance while suggesting other meanings
  32. Metonymy
    using a single feature to represent the whole
  33. Oxymoron
    Paradoxical juxtaposition of words that seem to contradict one another
  34. Periodic Sentence
    sentence whose main clause is withheld until the end
  35. Personification
    attribution of a lifelike quality to an inanimate object or idea
  36. Rhetorical Question
    Figure of speech in the form of a question posed for rhetorical effect rather than for the purpose of getting an answer
  37. Rhetorical/Aristotelian Triangle
    the interaction among subject, speaker, and audience as well as structure and language of the argument
  38. Zeugma
    use of two different words in a grammatically similar way but producing different, often incongruous, meanings
  39. Connotation
    the implied or suggested meaning attached to a word, the emotional "tag" that goes along with a word
  40. Denotation
    literal, dictionary definition (remember DEfinition and DEnotation)
  41. Inductive Reasoning
    reasoning that takes specific information and makes a broader generalization that is considered probable, allowing for the fact that the conclusion may not be accurate; reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
  42. Deductive Reasoning
    a logical process in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true (if this, than this)
  43. Annotation
    a note of explanation or comment added to a text or diagram
  44. Thesis Statement
    usually one sentence that appears at the end of the first paragraph, though it may occur as more than one; developed, supported, and explained in the course of the paper by means of examples and evidence
  45. Topic Sentence
    a sentence that expresses the main idea of the paragraph in which it occurs
  46. Close Reading
    a careful and purposeful reading

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