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bimodal
a distribution that has two values that have the highest frequency of scores

distribution
a collection, or group, of scores from a sample on a single variable. Often, but not necessarily, these scores are arranged in order from smallest to largest.

mean
The arithmetic average of a distribution of scores

Median split
Dividing a distribution of scores into two equal groups by using the median scores as the divider. Those scores above the median are the "high" group whereas those below the median are the "low" group.

Median
The score in a distribution that marks the 50th percentile. This is the score at which 50% of the distribution falls below and 50% fall above.

Mode
The score in the distribution that occurs most frequently.

Multimodal
When a distribution of scores has two or more values that have a highest frequency of scores.

Negative skew
in a skewed distribution, when most of the scores are clustered at the higher end of the distribution with a few scores creating a tail at the higher end of the distribution

Outliers
Extreme scores that are more than two standard deviations above or below the mean

Positive Skew
In a skewed distribution, when most of the scores are clustered at the lower end of the distribution with a few scores creating a tail at the higher end of the distribution.

Parameter
A value derived from the data collected from a population, or the value inferred to the population from a sample statistic

Population
The group from which data are collected or a sample is selected. The population encompasses the entire group for which the data are alleged to apply.

Sample
An individual or group, selected from a population, from whom or which data are collected.

Skew
When a distribution of scores has a high number of scores clustered at one end of the distribution with relatively few scores spread out toward the other end of the distribution, forming a tail.

Statistic
A value derived from the data collected from a sample.


X
An individual score in a distribution

∑ X
The sum of X; adding up all of the scores in a distribution.


μ
The mean of a population

n
The number of cases, or scores, in a sample.

N
The number of cases, or scores, in a population

P50
Symbol for the median

