Vertebral column 3: soft tissue structures and species variations

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Anonymous
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Vertebral column 3: soft tissue structures and species variations
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2015-01-13 16:14:51
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vertebral column anatomy
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Vet Med- Module 8
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  1. What type of joint is formed between the cranial and caudal articular facets of adjacent vertebrae?
    Synovial joints
  2. In total, how many synovial joints are associated with each vertebra?
    4
  3. At what points of the vertebral column are there not synovial joints?
    At the atlanto-occipital joint, sacrum and caudal/coccygeal region
  4. The intervertebral disc space is made up of two parts - what are these?
    The annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus
  5. What is the function of the a) annulus fibrosus b) nucleus pulposus
    • a) Holds vertebral bodies together/provides stability
    • b) Provides shock absorption
  6. Where is the annulus fibrosus thinnest?
    Dorsally
  7. List the different ligaments present in the vertebral column
    • Dorsal longitudinal ligament
    • Ventral longitudinal ligament
    • Interspinous ligament
    • Interarcuate ligament
    • Supraspinous ligament
    • Nuchal ligament
    • Intercapital ligament
    • Cost-transverse ligament
    • Radiate ligament
  8. Where aspect of the vertebral column does the dorsal longitudinal ligament run along?  And how much of the vertebral column is it present along?
    • It runs along the dorsal aspect of the vertebral bodies/ventral floor of the vertebral canal.  
    • It is present from C2-entire length.
  9. Where aspect of the vertebral column does the ventral longitudinal ligament run along?  And how much of the vertebral column is it present along?
    • It runs along the ventral aspect of the vertebral bodies
    • It is present from C2-sacrum
  10. Where are the interspinous ligaments located?
    The are located between adjacent dorsal spinous processes
  11. Where are the interarcuate ligaments located?
    They fill the space between the cranial and caudal notches of adjacent vertebral arches and therefore also covers the intervertebral foramen
  12. Where does the supraspinous ligament run?  And how much of the vertebral column is it present along?
    • Along the dorsal spinous processes
    • It is present from T1-CC3
  13. In the dog what is the cranial continuation of the supraspinous ligament?  And where does it continue to?
    • The nuchal ligament
    • It continues to the caudal aspect of C2 (the axis)
  14. What is the function of the nuchal ligament?
    To provide passive support for the relatively large weight of the head
  15. How many parts is the nuchal ligament composed of in horses?  What are these?
    Two - the funicular part and laminar part
  16. Where does the funicular part of the nuchal ligament run to in the horse?
    To the nuchal crest of the occipital bone
  17. Where does the laminar part of the nuchal ligament run to in horses?
    It runs from the funicular part of the nuchal ligament to the dorsal spinous processes of the cervical vertebrae
  18. What procedure is the nuchal ligament the site of in horses?
    Microchipping
  19. Which fluid filled bursar are associated with the nuchal ligament in the horse?
    The atlantal bursa and supraspinous bursa
  20. Where does the intercapital ligament run?
    It runs between the heads of corresponding paris of ribs
  21. What structures does the intercapital ligament merge with?  What is the functional significance of this?
    The dorsal longitudinal ligament and annulus fibrosus.  This means as well as stabilising the ribs it also helps to stabilise the intervertebral disc
  22. The intercapital ligament is only present in association with ribs ...?
    1-10
  23. Where does the cost-transverse ligament run?
    It runs from the tuberculum of each rib to the transverse process of the corresponding vertebrae
  24. Where is the radiate ligament located?
    Ventrally - holds the head of the rib in place
  25. In what areas is the spinal cord most vulnerable to damage?
    In areas where it is subjected to a large amount of movement
  26. What areas of the vertebral column are most venerable to damage?
    Areas where there is a transition from an area of low motion to an area of high motion i.e. the cervicothoracic and thoracolumbar junctions
  27. Which bones form the atlanto-occipital joint?
    The atlas and the occipital condyle of the skull
  28. Which bones form the atlanto-axial joint?
    The atlas and axis
  29. Which joint is the a) 'yes' joint b) 'no joint'
    • a) atlanto-occipital joint
    • b) atlanto-axial joint
  30. Which muscles associated with the vertebral column are located dorsal/ventral to the transverse processes?
    • Dorsal- epaxial muscles
    • Ventral - hypaxial muscles
  31. What is the function of the a) epaxial b) hypaxial muscles?
    • a) To extend the vertebral column and create lateral movement
    • b) Produce flexion and lateral movement
  32. What is disc degeneration?
    This is when the nucleus pulposus becomes dehydrated and results in the disc loosing its compliance which can predispose it to further damage
  33. What does disc degeneration look like on MRI?
    The nucleus pulposus no longer appears hyperintense but appears dark
  34. What is disc protrusion?
    This occurs when the disc material bulges dorsally from the disc space, pushing the dorsal longitudinal ligament into the vertebral canal
  35. What is disc extrusion?
    This is when the intervertebral disc ruptures through the dorsal longitudinal and disc material becomes located within the vertebral canal
  36. Which areas of the vertebral column are common sites of disc degeneration?
    Cervical region, lumbar region, thoracolumbar junction
  37. What is the vertebral formula of the dog?
    C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd variable
  38. What is the vertebral formula of the cat?
    C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd variable
  39. What is the vertebral formula of the horse?
    C7 T18 L6 S5 Cd variable
  40. What is the name of the highest point of the thoracic vertebrae in the horse?
    Withers
  41. Where is the anticlinal vertebrae in the horse?
    T16
  42. What is the vertebral formula of the cow?
    C7 T13 L6 S5 Cd variable
  43. What is the vertebral formula of the pig?
    C7 T14-16 L6-7 S2 Cd variable
  44. What is the vertebral formula of the sheep?
    C7 T13 L6 S5 Cd variable

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