paramedic prep

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paramedic prep
2015-01-22 19:02:49

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  1. cushings reflex
    • increased blood pressure,
    • decreased pulse rate,
    • decreased respiratory rate,
    • increased temperature
  2. Para (When dealing with females
    indicates the number of viable (>20 wks) births. Pregnancies consisting of multiples, such as twins or triplets, count as ONE birth for the purpose of this notation.
  3. Oxygen delivered by a nasal cannula is about
    1-6 liters of oxygen per minute and ranges 24-44%
  4. Cheyne-Stokes respiration is
    an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by progressively deeper and sometimes faster breathing, followed by a gradual decrease that results in a temporary stop in breathing called apnea
  5. You are assessing a 57 year old male who is suffering from crushing chest pain.  What does "S" stand for in your OPQRST acronym?
    Pain Scale
  6. In order to maintain adequate oxygenation, any attempt to intubate a patient should last no longer than how many seconds?
  7. Aphasia
    Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
  8. Dysphagia
    symptom of difficulty in swallowing
  9. Mediastinum.
    heart is located in the chest in a cavity
  10. Erythema
    Erythema is redness of the skin caused by capillary congestion
  11. What does a positive tilt test indicate
    The patient is hypovolemic
  12. acute pulmonary edema
    Rapid to moderate onset, rales, accessory muscle use, and dyspnea are classic symptoms for a patient with acute pulmonary edema.
  13. A dull sound on chest percussion
    may be associated with pneumonia, hemothorax, or pulmonary edema.
  14. Stimulation of the baroreceptors causes
    • Increased heart rate 
    • Increased cardiac output 
    • Bronchodilation
  15. happens in decompensated shock?
    • Precapillary sphincters open
    • Blood pressure falls 
    • Rouleaux are formed
  16. The Bundle of His
    does not possess pacemaker capabilities
  17. sinoatrial node

    sa node
    The normal pacemaker of the heart is the sinoatrial node with a firing rate of 60—100 beats per minute
  18. The atrioventricular node

    av node
    is the secondary pacemaker of the heart with a firing rate of 40-60 beats per minute
  19. Purkinje fibers
    The third pacemaker of the heart is the Purkinje fibers in the ventricles, with a firing rate of 20-40 beats per minute.
  20. Tuberculosis is a(n)
  21. During inspiration, the
    diaphragm contracts and the intercostal muscles relax
  22. Cushing's triad
    widening pulse pressure (with a rising systolic BP and a diastolic that remains the same or rises slightly), change in respiratory pattern (irregular respirations), and bradycardia.    Correct
  23. Methylprednisolone is a steroid that
    reduces swelling of the spinal cord and reduces the extent of the injury
  24. left ventricular failure with pulmonary edema.
    BP elevated, pulse fast and irregular, respirations rapid and labored
  25. AMS
    Acute Mountain Sickness
  26. renal calculi (kidney stones).
    Sudden onset of flank pain, excruciating colicky pain, and vomiting are considered classic signs
  27. Gallstone pain
    Right shoulder pain and shoulder blades
  28. Otitis externa
    Swimmer's ear
  29. Ronchi
    is a rattling sound heard in the large airways
  30. parassympathetic
    • feed and breed
    • rest and digest
  31. sympathetic
    fight or flight
  32. gravidity
    number of times a female has been pregnant
  33. decompensated shock
    • any adult patient having a systolic blood pressure below 90 mm hg and exhibiting sighs of inadequate perfusing which may include
    • altered mental status
    • increased pulse
    • pale skin
    • cool clamm skin
    • pale conjuctiva
    • delayed cap refil
  34. kussmaul breathing
    is a deep & labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis , particularly KDA but also renal failure
  35. CPR
  36. cardiac output
    amount of blood pumped each min
  37. stroke volume
    amount of blood pumped with each heart beat
  38. cardiac output=
    stroke volume x heart rate
  39. preload
    right-sided heart return + atrial kick
  40. most sensitive endicato of poor perfusion
    level of consciuosness
  41. signs of shock
    • rapid breathing
    • rapid and weak pulse
    • nausea and vomiting
  42. types of shock
    • cardiogenic
    • hypovolemic
    • obstructive
    • distributiv
  43. cardiogenci shock is a ____ problem
    pump problem
  44. obstructive shock is a ____ problem
    pipe problem
  45. hypovolemic shock is a _____ problem
    fluid problem
  46. distributive shock is a ____ problem
    pipe problem
  47. causes of cadiogenic shock
    • HR to fast
    • HR to slow
    • HR too irregular
    • HR fails as a pump
    • chonic
    • *problem=cardiac output
  48. causes of hypovolemic shock
    • active loss of blood
    • acute dehydration
    • burns
    • *problem =not enough blood
  49. causes of obstructive shock
    • tension pneumothorax
    • tamponade
    • dissecting aortic aneurysm
    • massive pulmonary embolism
    • *problem=preload is blocked or cardiac output is blocked
  50. causes of distributive shock
    • anaphalaxis
    • sepsis
    • metabolic
    • neurogenic
    • psychogenic
    • overdose
    • *problem=widespread vasodilation
  51. ventilations for adults, infants, and older children
    • adults 10-12
    • infants 20-30
    • children 16-20
  52. absolute refractory period
    the heart muscle is completely depolarized and unable to respond to any stimulus
  53. relative refractory period
    partially repolarized and may respond to an electrial stimulus and deplorize
  54. biots brething
    abnormal paern of brathing charactierized by groups of quick, shallow inspirations followed by regular or irregular period of apnea
  55. cushings triad
    • a change in respirations
    • a widening pulse pressure(systolic and diastolic widening)
    • bradycardia
  56. pericarditis
    is swelling and irritation of the pericardium
  57. sellicks manuver
    the application of pressure to a patients cricoid cartilage during et tube is suppose to prevent aspiration
  58. pasg
    pneumatic anti-shock garment
  59. rule of 9's for adults
    • 9% for each arm
    • 18% for each leg
    • 9% for head
    • 18%for front torso
    • 18% for back torso
  60. rule of 9's for children
    • 9% for each arm
    • 14% for each leg
    • 18% for head
    • 18% for front torso
    • 18% for back torso
  61. parkland formula
    4 x kg x BSA

    first 8 hours gets half then next 16 hours gets rest
  62. dyspnea
    shortness of breath or diffuiculty breathing
  63. bells palsy
    tyically affects only the facial nerve causing facial weakness
  64. baroreceptors
    receptors in blood vessels, kidneys,brain,heart that respond to changes in pressure in the heart or main arteries to help maintain homeostasis
  65. white blood cells
    fight and destroy the parasites, viruses and other foreign particles which can pose a threat to the body
  66. orthoponea
    difficulty breathing while laying flat
  67. psychosis
    • loss of contact with reality that usually includes
    • false beliefs about what is taking place
    • seeing or hearing things that are not there
  68. preeclampsia and eclampsia
    preeclampsia is high blood pressure and protein in urine

    eclampsia is after preeclampsia and involves seizure
  69. diabetic ketoacidosis
    body produces high levels of ketones from lack of insulin

    excessive thirst,frequent urination, nausea and vomiting , abdominal pain, shortness of breath , confusioin
  70. npa
    nostril to ear lope
  71. opa
    corner of persons mouth to the angle of the jaw
  72. erythema
    redness of the skin that results in capillary congestion
  73. children 1-10
    systolic fromula
    • low      SBP=(agex2)+70
    • normal SBP=(agex2)+80
    • high     SBP=(agex2)+90
  74. formula for weight bassed on the age
    (age x 2)+ 8 = weight(kilogram)
  75. parkland formula
    4ML x kilograms x percentage=first 24 hours

    divided in half equals first 8 hours