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Fractions such as one-half and one-third may be ---------- OR --------- , depending on the referent.
singular or plural
- Half of the mail has been delivered.
- Half of the letters have been read.
T OR F
Subjects joined by and take a plural verb unless the subjects are commonly thought of as one item or unit.
- Jim and Tammy were televangelists.
- Guns and Roses is my favorite group.
T OR F?
In cases when the subjects are joined by or, nor, either . . .or, or neither . . .nor, the verb must agree with the subject closer to it.
- Either the teacher or the students are responsible.
- Neither the students nor the teacher is responsible.
She is one of the best cheerleaders who HAVE/HAS ever attended our school.
- Relative pronouns—such as who, which, or that—require plural verbs if they refer to plural antecedents.
- However, when the relative pronoun refers to a singular subject, the pronoun takes a singular verb.
- WHO/HAS SINGULAR EXAMPLE:
- She is the only cheerleader who has a broken leg.
T OT F?
Subjects preceded by every and each are singular.
- Every man, woman, and child was given a life preserver.
- Each undergraduate is required to pass a proficiency exam.
Subjects preceded by "the number" of or "the percentage" of are ------------.
subjects preceded by a number of or a percentage of are -------.
The number of
vacationers in Florida increases
A number of
vacationers are young couples.
Hiding your mistakes does not make them go away.
WHAT IS "HIDING" IN THE SENTENCE?
DO YOU USE NOMINATIVE OR OBJECTIVE PRONOUNS WHEN IT COMES TO THE OBJECT OF A GERUND?
OBJECTIVE. (HIM, HER)
Enlisting him was surprisingly easy.
who is used to refer to --------
which to refer to -------, ------- or -------.
where to refer to -----------
and that to refer to -------, ------ or --------
- who is used to refer to people.
- which to refer to things, places or groups.
- where to refer to places.
- that to refer to things, places or groups.
diffenernce between that and which
THAT is essential, you can't remove it or it changes the meaning of the sentence.
WHICH is non-essential, set it off with commas.
T OR F?
If that has already appeared in a sentence, writers sometimes use which to introduce the next clause, whether it is essential or nonessential.
DEFINE LIE AND LAY
Important note: The simple past form of lie (LAY) is the same word as the simple present form of lay. This shared form accounts for much of the confusion with these two verbs.To choose the correct form, you must understand the uses of the simple present, simple past,and past participle forms.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REAL AND REALLY
REAL IS AN ADJECTIVE MEANING GENUINE.
REALLY IS AN ADVERB THAT MEANS "VERY".
- This is real amethyst. ADJECTIVE
- This is really difficult. ADVERB
- This is a real crisis ADJECTIVE
- This is really important. ADVERB
CORRECT THIS SENTENCE:
The University of West Florida is as large or larger than the University of North Florida.
The University of West Florida is as large as or larger than the University of Northern Florida.
Adverbs answer one of these four questions:
Adjectives answer these 2 questions:
adverbs: How? When? Where? To What Extent? and Why?
adjectives: What kind? or Which one?
WHAT IS "ALSO" IN THIS SENTENCE:
For his birthday, Frank would also like a jar of dill pickles.
Would like = verb; also = adverb.
When a short adverb such as also, never, or not interrupts, it is still an adverb, not part of the verb.
A multi-part verb has a base or mainpart as well as auxiliary or helping verbs with it.
WHAT IS "NEVER" IN THIS SENTENCE:
After that dreadful casserole you made last night, Julie will never eat tuna or broccoli again.
- Will eat = verb; never = adverb.
- When a short adverb such as also, never, or not interrupts, it is still an adverb, not part of the verb.
A multi-part verb has a base or mainpart as well as
auxiliary or helping verbs with it.
T OR F?
No " -ing" word by itself is ever the verb of a sentence. It may be part of the verb, but itmust have a helping verb in front of it
early for the game. (not a sentence, because the verb is not complete)!
- They are leaving early for the game.
- (a sentence)
T OR F?
Sometimes an "-ing" word is the subject of a sentence. In this case, the –ing word doesnot function as a verb. Instead, it functions as a noun. Such a noun is called a gerund.
Leaving early for the game is a good idea.
IS "NEITHER" CONSIDERED A SINGULAR OR PLURAL SUBJECT?
EX: NEITHER OF THE BOYS WAS/WERE READY?
“Neither” is a singular subject; therefore, the singular verb “was” is appropriate.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Gone or Went?
- Gone is the past participle of to go.
- Used as the verb of a sentence, it must always be preceded by an auxiliary verb such as has, have, had, is, am, are, was, were, be, or one of their contractions.
is the past tense of to go.
It never takes an auxiliary verb.
- Incorrect: They gone to the movies.
- (Gone needs an auxiliary verb.)
- Correct: They have gone to the movies.
- Correct: They are gone to the movies.
- Correct: They went to the movies.
- Incorrect: You could have went with them.
- (Went takes no auxiliary verb.)
- Correct: You could have gone with them.
I’d went to Dublin on an earlier train.
I‘d gone to Dublin on an earlier train.
WHICH IS CORRECT?
I‘d gone to Dublin on an earlier train. (I’d = I had)
HAD....auxiliary verb such as has, have, had, is, am, are, was, were, be, or one of their contractions....USE GONE.
The plane’s captain (who OR that) flew the flight to California was a twenty-year veteran with the airlines.
- “Who” is used with people
- “that” is used with things.
THEY VS THEM
THEY: SUBJECTIVE. DOERS OF THE ACTION.
EX:The children were kind. They gave me a present.
THEM:OBJECTIVE. Refers back to two or more people or things that were mentioned earlier, THINK DIRECT OBJECT.
EX: The kids were really excited. Jack gave them presents.
WAS VS WERE
- TRUE STATEMENT OF THE PAST:
- WAS = SINGULAR
- WERE = PLURAL
- I was there.
- They were not there.
When you're writing about a non-true situation
usually following the word if or the verb wish
the verb "to be" is rendered as were
- If I was were a rich man.
- I wish I was were an Oscar Mayer wiener.
Seldom has so much been owed by so many to so few.
what is the subject and verb?
Seldom has so much been owed by so many to so few.
When a sentence begins with an adverb or an adverbial phrase or clause, subject follows verb.
Everyone vs. Every One
- It is used to refer to all the people in a group.
- The pronoun everyone may be replaced by everybody.
- The new protocols will affect everyone positively.
- The new protocols will affect everybody positively.
- Every one
- Every one refers to each individual who makes up a group, and means each person.
- My mother would like to thank every one who offered assistance during her illness.
- My mother would like to thank each person who offered assistance during her illness.
These are the joiners of our society who built club memberships and who do good works for the community.
A) have built
LOOK AT THE VERB IN THE SENTENCE! MATCH THE TENSE OF IT TO GET THE RIGHT VERB. THINK PARALLELISM.
- The correct choice is C.
- The verb (are) requires a present tense verb (build) to replace "built".