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Definition of Fatigue?
State of feeling tired weary or sleepy due to prlonged exposure to (WASH) ,Work, Anxiety, Lack of Sleep, Harsh treatments.
Fatigue: 3 types, indications, and how to recover?
What is Spatial Disorientation?
Inability to accurately judge your position, attitude or motion to the surface of the earth or other prominent feature (i.e. trees poles fences at a hover)
How do you prevent Spatial Disorientation?
(Never, Never, Trust and Avoid)
1) Never fly without a visual reference point
2) Never fly VMC and IMC at the same time
3) Trust your instruments
4) Avoid Stressors (Faith) Fatigue, anxiety, (insulin) Hypoglycemia, tobacco
What is the Treatment Spatial Disorientation
1) Delay intuitive reaction
2) Develop a good cross check
3) Transfer flight controls
What are the types of Spatial Disorientation
1) Type I – Unrecognized; Most dangerous; Pilot doesn’t think anything is wrong and fly’s right to the ground (Height Depth Illusion)
2) Type II – Recognized; Pilot realizes something is wrong but blames the instruments. (Graveyard Spiral)
3) Type III – Incapacitating; Overwhelming sensation of movement and can not control the aircraft. Transfer controls (Coriolis illusion)
What are the 3 Sensory Systems – help maintain balance, equilibrium and orientation.
1) Visual - most important, 80 percent of orientation information
2) Proprioceptive system – Seat of the pants flying sensations and pressures on the joints and muscles
- 3) Vestibular – Inner ear: A) Semicircular canals – change in angular acceleration (roll, pitch and yaw);
- B) Otolith organs – small sensory hairs that respond to gravity and linear acceleration.
What are the Vestibular Illusions?
1) Somatogyral (3 types) – angular acceleration and deceleration
Leans – (Most common) in a slow roll the fluid in your ear settles and you feel you are level. When you level the wings you sense a roll in the opposite direction and lean in the direction of the original bank until the sensation subsides.
Graveyard Spiral – Same as the leans but you ignore the instruments thinking they are broke and place the aircraft in a bank all the way to the ground
Coriolis Illusion – Prolonged turns with rapid head movement cause a tumbling disorienting feeling
2) Somotogravic (2 types)– linear acceleration and deceleration
- Oculogravic – FWD acceleration cause head to go back sensing a nose high
- Elevator – (updraft) upward acceleration, eyes track with horizon down sensing a nose high attitude
Oculoagravic – (downdraft) downward acceleration, eyes track up sensing a nose low.
What are the Self Imposed stressors
- Drugs (SOAPSC)
- Self medication
- Allergic reaction
- Predictable side effects
- Synergistic effects (combining drugs)
- Exhaustion – lack of sleep, or physical exercise
- Alcohol – impairs night vision, reduces brain ability to use O2
– Hypemic hypoxia 20 cigs a day or 3 in a row puts you at 5K’ pressure altitude psychologically reducing your night vision.
– blood sugar level falls causing fainting or tiredness
How does Carbon monoxide affect your body, What are the symptoms and treatment?
It Adheres to blood better than Oxygen. (200:1)
Symptoms - Headache, muscle cramps, impaired speech
Treatment – 100 percent oxygen. artificial respiration, application of warmth
What is the Definition of Stress?
Body’s nonspecific response to a demand placed on it.
What is the Definition and 4 types of Hypoxia?
Definition – Lack of oxygen in the body
1) Hypoxic – not enough O2 in the air at high altitude (reduced partial pressure)
2) Hypemic – reduced oxygen carrying capability of blood. (Smoking, blood loss)
3) Stagnant – Inadequate circulation of blood (High G maneuvers, heart failure)
4) Histotoxic – toxins interfere with bodies ability to use O2. (Alcohol or drugs)
What are the 4 Stages of Hypoixa?
1) Indifferent: 10-10 K (90 percent O2) mild hypoxia; night vision deteriorates at 4,000 feet
2) Comensatory: 10-15K (80 percent 02) increased breathing and pulse to compensate; impaired efficiency, drowsiness, poor judgment
3) Disturbance: 15-20K (70 percent 02) body can no longer compensate; sleepiness, euphoria
4) Critical: 20K + (60 percent O2) happens within 3-5 min; incapacitation and death
How do you prevent Hypoxia?
1) Limit time at altitude
2) Use supplemental O2
3) Stay below 10K altitude
What are the oxygen requirements at altitude?
Above 10K = 1 hour
12K-14K = 30 mim
14K+ = always and all occupants
What are the Flight Restrictions Due to Exogenous Factors?
12 Hours (ASIA)
- Alcohol – from last drink no residual
- Simulator Sickness – after symptoms stop
- Immunizations – if reactions occur must be cleared by flt surgeon
- Anesthesia - local and dental (48hrs if spinal or epidural)
- Plasma donation – 2x a year max
- Hyperbolic chamber – if above 25K (none is below 10K)
– more than 200cc
How do you treat middle ear discomfort?
Descending – level off and clear, if unable climb to altitude where pain lessens clear then descend slowly and clear.