Local Functions of the Spinal Cord

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Anonymous
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293005
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Local Functions of the Spinal Cord
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2015-01-14 15:18:46
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Spinal cord functions
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Vet Med - Module 8
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  1. What are the two types of motor neurones?
    Upper motor neurones and lower motor neurones
  2. What are the common components of a reflex arc?
    Receptor system, afferent (sensory) nerve, efferent (motor) nerve, effector system ie muscle
  3. Which of these reflexes is monosynaptic/polysynaptic? a) patellar reflex b) withdrawal reflex
    • a) Monosynaptic
    • b) Polysynaptic
  4. What happens if you interrupt the activity of one of the reflex elements?
    You diminish or abolish the reflex
  5. For the following observations suggest which side of the reflex arch is damaged (afferent, efferent or both): 
    a) decrease in resting muscle tone
    b) normal resting muscle tone 
    c) decrease in resistance to forced extension/sensation
    d) rapid and severe decrease in muscle bulk
    • a) efferent side
    • b) afferent side
    • c) either side or only afferent side
    • d) efferent side
  6. List the different spinal reflexes
    Patellar reflex, thoracic limb withdrawal reflex, pelvic limb withdrawal reflex, cutaneous trunci reflex, perineal reflex
  7. What is the stimulus for the patellar reflex?
    Percussion of the patellar tendon
  8. What nerve does the patellar reflex test?
    The femoral nerve
  9. Which nerve roots does the patellar reflex test?
    L4-L6
  10. Which area of the vertebral column does the patellar reflex test?
    The cranial aspect of the lumbar intumescence
  11. What is the normal response from the patellar reflex?
    Brisk, controlled movement of the stifle
  12. What nerves does the thoracic limb withdrawal reflex test?
    Axillary, musculocutaneous, median and ulnar nerves
  13. What is the stimulus for the thoracic limb withdrawal reflex?
    Sensory pinching of the toes
  14. What is the normal response from the thoracic limb withdrawal reflex?
    Flexion of the carpus, elbow and shoulder.
  15. Which nerve roots does the thoracic limb withdrawal reflex test?
    C6-T2
  16. Which nerve does the pelvic limb withdrawal reflex test?
    Sciatic nerve
  17. What is the stimulus for the pelvic limb withdrawal reflex?
    Sensory pinching of the toes
  18. What is the normal response to the pelvic limb withdrawal reflex?
    Flexion of the hip, stifle and tarsus
  19. What nerve roots does the pelvic limb withdrawal reflex test?
    L6-S2
  20. Where is the cutaneous trunci muscle located?
    It is a paired muscle that lies beneath the skin on each side
  21. What is the stimulus for the cutaneous trunci reflex?
    Sensory pinching skin over the dorsum
  22. What is the normal response to the cutaneous trunci reflex?
    Bilateral contraction of the cutaneous trunci muscle, which ever side is stimulated
  23. Which spinal nerves does the cutaneous trunci muscle test?
    T2-L2
  24. What area of the vertebral column is the cutaneous trunci muscle good for localising within?
    The cap between the two intumescences i.e. T3-L3
  25. What type of lesions are commonly associated with ipsilateral failure of the cutaneous trunci reflex?
    Caudal brachial plexus lesions
  26. What is the stimulus for the perineal reflex?
    Sensory pinching of the perineum
  27. Which nerve does the perineal reflex test?
    The pudendal nerve
  28. Which nerve roots does the perineal reflex test?
    S1-Cd5
  29. What is the normal response to the perineal reflex?
    Contraction of the anus and 'clamping' of the tail
  30. If segmental spinal limb reflexes are intact it is a/an UMN/LMN lesion?  If segmental spinal reflexes are affected it is a/an UMN/LMN lesion?
    Intact - UMN lesion.  Affected - LMN lesion.
  31. What are the two types of hyper reflexia?
    • Real - due to release of inhibition from UMNs
    • Pseudo - due to reduction in action of antagonistic pair
  32. Which muscle is responsible for the patellar reflex?  And what muscle antagonises it?
    Quadriceps.  Antagonised by the caudal thigh muscles.
  33. What is clonus?  What type of lesion is this commonly found in?
    This is when there is oscillation of the stifle following the patellar reflex.  It is commonly associated with an UMN lesion affecting the pelvic limb.

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