CCA Exam Part I

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CCA Exam Part I
2015-01-21 19:08:28
disease insects soils

Diseases insects deficiencies
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  1. How do you use ammonium sulfate (AMS)?
    • Not super high N content 21% but has S
    • Ammonium form, good for flooded
    • High quality used for spray to help hard water herbicide effectiveness
    • N def soybean
    • Caused by: cool wet soils, heavy rains, flooding, ponded areas, drought with low water or nutrient holding capacity
    • large amounts of low N residues
    • soil inoculate too low
  2. K def in alfalafa
    spotty leaves
  3. N def in alfalfa
  4. P def in alfalfa
  5. S def in alfalfa
  6. B def in alfalfa
  7. slow growth
    small leaflets
    stunded and spindly plants
    dark green to bluish leaves
  8. K def in beans
  9. Fe or Mn in soybeans
  10. Why P defs
    • cold soils
    • too wet or too dry
    • poor root growth, compaction
    • low pH
    • root damage
    • low soil test P or positionally unavalible
  11. Why K defs
    • sandy soil
    • Low organic matter
    • wet/compacted soils
    • heavy K removal from prevous crop
    • low soil test K
  12. Why Mg defs
    • acid, sandy soils
    • high rain fall
    • very high K
    • soil test below 100 lb/ac
    • high rate of ammonium
  13. why S def?
    • acid sandy soil, low om
    • wet, cool soils
    • rare in IN
  14. Why Mn def?
    • High soil pH and or OM
    • depressed areas
    • organic peats and mucks
    • poor aeration
  15. Why Zn def?
    • High soil P levels and or high soil pH
    • cool wet soils low OM
    • soil compaction
  16. Why B def?
    • drought on sandy soils
    • over liming of sandy soils
    • can be confused with drought or leaf hopper
  17. white grub with short mohawk
    japanese beetle
    • brown marmroated stink bug
    • nymhps look the same
  18. ECB
  19. WBC and ECB
  20. Mexican bean bettle
  21. potato leaf hopper
  22. WBC
  23. Grape colaspis
    looks like a short white grub
  24. Stalk bore larvae
    inch worms
  25. White grub
    either no mohawk or one too long to count
  26. alfalfa weevil larvae
  27. Corn ear worm larvae
    • gray leaf spot in corn
    • rectangular lesisans
    • July and August most
    • warm humid weather, with lot of dew
    • overwinters in residue
    • hybrids, fungicides, tillage
    • Norther corn leaf blight
    • corn residue
    • moderate temperatures with long dews
    • hybrid, tillage, fungicide
    • Goss's leaf blight
    • flecking in the lesision
    • bacteria overwinter in residue, from seeds, hail damage
    • hybrids, rotation, tillage NOT Fungicide
  28. seedling blights
    • poor emergance, pale green, die,
    • water soaked regions
    • seed rot
    • pythium fusarium gibberella, diplodia penicillium
    • fungus
    • planting depth, with seed, in soil, crusting, compaction
    • fungicide, good seed, right depth
    • Anthracnose stalk rot
    • black pith
    • foliage dies, pith disintergrates
    • good early conditions then stress favor antracnose
    • hybrids, tillage, minimize stress
    • gibberella stalk/ear rot
    • stalk is pink pith
    • wet humid conditions at silking
    • hybrids not fungicides
    • stalk good early conditions then stress
    • Fusarium ear rot
    • pink pith for stalk
    • wet humid conditions at silking
    • hybrids not fungicides
    • stalk good early conditions then stress
    • diplodia ear rot
    • white, light weight, bottom of ear
    • hollow and gray stem
    • wet humid conditions at silking
    • hybrids not fungicides
    • stalk good early conditions then stress
  29. Common Rust
    • pustules on both upper and lower surface
    • long dew, blown in from the south
    • hybrids, not a big deal
  30. nematode damage on corn
    • early in cool and wet springs
    • short stubby roots
    • yellow and stunted plants
    • worse in sandy soil
    • yield takes a hit
    • brown stem rot
    • interveinal cholrosis like sudden death sydrome
    • fungus in bean residue, cool wet weather after flowering
    • varieties, rotation, tillage
  31. phytophtrora root rot
    • plants wilt and damp off
    • flooded areas
    • fungi
    • varitiy, fungicide, plant away from flooded areas
    • Fusarium seedling blight on soybeans
    • uneven stand, weak stunted
    • brown purple or black lesions on the roots
    • most common to seedlings and flooded 57 F soil
    • Any sort of stress
    • seed treatment, good planting conditions
    • Pythium/rhizoctonia in soybeans
    • root in ground, or poor growth, turn yellow and die
    • rhizoctonia = sucken red lesions on hypocotal
    • in cool wet, compacted soils
    • plant good seed good temps, seed treatment.
  32. Soybean cyst Nematode
    • Small white cysts on roots
    • attack may to august
    • yellowing and stunted plants, worse when more stress
    • resistant varieties
  33. bean pod mottle virus
    • Makes the leaves puckery and virusy
    • probably would need the vector
    • Sudden death syndrome
    • soil borne fungus, cool wet weather followed by warm and dry
    • varieties, delay planting, reduce compation, other stress
    • Sclerotinia stem rot (white mold)
    • fungus lives in soil
    • cool and wet weather with dense canopies
    • varieties, rotation, weed control, wider rows, some fungicides
    • Asian rust
    • long due periods, after flowering
    • foliar fungicides
    • barley yellow dwarf
    • transmitted by aphids
    • genetic, delay planting, insecticide seed treat
    • powdery mildew
    • moderate temps with high humidity
    • genetic resistance and foliar fungicide
    • head scab in wheat
    • warm and humid during heading
    • varieties, tillage, fungicide
    • Rust on wheat
    • heavy due and intermediate rain
    • varieties and foliar fugicides
    • septoria leaf blotch
    • gets black dots in the center
    • starts on bottom, works up, cool, wet and cloudy
    • genetic resistance, foliar fungicide, crop rotation
    • Stagonospora leaf blotch
    • doesn't get black dots in the center
    • wheat windy weather
    • genetics, rotation, foilar and seed fungicide
    • Stagonospora glume blotch
    • purple/brown discoloration on white wheat head
    • wheat windy weather
    • genetics, rotation, foilar and seed fungicide
    • phytopthora
    • wet/poorly drained root zones
    • water soaked, wither and die // leasions develop on the root
    • improved drainage and reduce other stresses
    • anthracnose
    • warm moist conditions
    • resistant varieties, quarentine the field
  34. Bacterial wilt in Alfalfa
    • yellow stunted and spindley stems
    • yellow/brown vascular tissue
    • wounded plants and nematode damage
    • resistant, rotate, don't mow when wet
    • leaf spot
    • Acid low fertility soils
    • cool wet periods
    • variety, proper management