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  1. Microbiology includes the study of these four major microbial groups: 
     
     
     
    • 1) Bacteria
    • 2) fungus
    • 3) Protists
    • 4) Archarea
  2. What do we typically measure viruses in?
    nanometers
  3. When measuring microorganisms, what measurements are typically used for bacteria
    micrometers
  4. what are the 2 Major characteristics of all microorganisms (w/some exceptions)?
    • 1) small/microscopic (w/exceptions).
    • 2) They are simple (w/exceptions).

    some are not simple or small.
  5. Which microorganisms are ONLY unicellular (except for the exceptions, of course)?
    • archarea
    • Protists
    • Bacteria (Not fungi, because it can be mulitcellular).
  6. 5 Groups of microorganisms:
    • 1) Acellular microorganisms
    • 2) Bacteria
    • 3) fungus
    • 4) Protists
    • 5) Archarea
  7. Which of the 5 major groups of microbes is Eukaryotic?
    Fungi, & Protists
  8. Which of the 5 major groups of microbes is Prokaryotic?
    Bacteria & archaria
  9. Which of the 5 groups of microorganisms are neither eukaryotic nor prokaryotic?
    Acellular microbes
  10. 3 things to remember about Cell Theory
    • 1) Cells are the basic unit of life
    • 2) All living things are made of cells
    • 3) Cells arise from other cells.
  11. Cell theory took over 100 years to become a formal written scientific theory. What was the big fight that took place about
    spontaneous generation
  12. *Cell Theory 
     
     
    • 1) A cell is the basic unit of life
    • 2) All living things are made of cells
    • 3) Cells arise from preexisting cells.
  13. Who performed the final experiment with swan-necked flasks that definitively disproved the idea of spontaneous generation?
    Louis Pastuer
  14. Germ Theory:
    Microorganisms are the cause of many diseases
  15. Koch's postulates
    • 1)microorganisms must be found in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy organisms.
    • 2) microorganisms must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture
    • 3) the cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.
    • 4) the microorganism must be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and shown to be the same as the original microorganism.
  16. Limits of Koch's posutlates
    -
    -
    -
    • -some microbes which cause disease are also found in asymptomatic carriers
    • -some microbes cannot be isolated in pure culture.
    • -some microbes are deadly and no animal model exists for them
  17. Gene Theory (of Inheritance) 
     
     
    • 1)Traits are passed on through packets of information in genes contained in DNA.
    • 2)Genes are located on chromosomes (DNA)
    • 3) Central dogma of science
  18. The Central Dogma of Science states that: 
     
    • * DNA is used to form RNA.
    • * RNA is used to form Proteins or Neucleic acids (DNA & RNA).
  19. 1) Hershey and Chase Experiments 
     Used _______________________ (a virus which infects bacteria). 

    2) Viruses are composed of___&____
    • 1)Bacteriophages were used to infect bacteria
    • 2)Protein shell and DNA center
  20. Hershey and Chase experiment #1:
    1) Did the viral protein get into the bacterial cell?
    2) Did the bacterial cell produce more virions?
    • 1) no
    • 2) yes
  21. Hershey and Chase experiment #2:
    1) Did the viral DNA get into the bacterial cell?

    2) Did the bacterial cell produce more virions?
    • 1) yes
    • 2) yes
  22. What part of the virus was required to make new virons inside the bacterial cell
    DNA.
  23. Form enzymes, cellular machinery, cellular scaffolding etc. These are mostly made up of:
    proteins
  24. Every cell needs to be able to double cellular contents in preparation for cell division. This includes all major compounds: ____ ___ ____ ____
    • 1) Carbs
    • 2) Nucleic acids (RNA & DNA)
    • 3) Oil
    • 4) Proteins
  25. Cells need to 1) Make a duplicate copy of the cell’s ‘blueprints’. This is made up of:____
    2) Provide ___,____ ,_____ and for all of these processes
    • 1) APT
    • 2) Carbs, DNA, Electrons
  26. Proteins make a bulk of the functional parts of every cell. The instructions for producing any cellular protein are contained in DNA in information packets called
    genes
  27. To produce proteins, information in DNA needs to be _______from DNA to a temporary form (RNA). Then the information needs to be______ from the nucleic acid language (4 letters in groups of three) to the amino acid language (twenty letters in groups of variable size).
    Transcription, Translation
  28. DNA structure is very complicated, but the two very general parts are the____ and the ____bases.
    backbone, nucleotide
  29. RNA is similar to DNA. One of the biggest differences is:
    RNA is single strand (U nucleic acid), DNA is Double Strand (T nucleic acid)
  30. Replication is the process of
    forming DNA from DNA.
  31. 2 Steps to produce proteins
    • 1) transcription allows the first step to produce proteins by producing mRNA.
    • 2) tRNA and ribosomes attach proteins to mRNA.
  32. Mutations occur during
    replicatons

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