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What are the functions of sensory, integration and motor neurones?
- Sensory - collect information about the external environment and internal conditions of the body
- Integration - receive the sensory input, analyse it, and make decision about the appropriate response to make
- Motor - carry out the instructions that result from integration by impulses sent to various effector organs that include muscles and glands
What is a spinal nerve?
A nerve that carries signals between the spinal cord and body
What aspect of the spinal cord do sensory fibres arrive in? Where is the cell body of the sensory fibre located?
They arrive in the dorsal part of the spinal cord. the cell body is located in the dorsal ganglion.
What are cranial nerves?
Nerves that carry signals between the forebrain or brainstem and mainly the head and neck
Give examples of different types of receptors
Touch, temperature, movement, chemical, pressure, light, sound
Where are exteroreceptors/interoreceptors located and what are they sensitive to?
- Exteroreceptors - located near the surface of the body. Sensitive to changes in the external environment.
- Interoreceptors - located within the viscera. Sensitive to changes in the internal environment.
What are proprioceptors sensitive to?
Movement of muscles, tendons and joints
What are somatic afferent fibres subdivided into? What are visceral afferent fibres subdivided into?
- General somatic afferent and special somatic afferent
- General visceral afferent and special visceral afferent
What do the following sensory spinal tracts receive information about: fasciculus gracilis, fasciculus cuneatus, dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts, spinothalamic tracts?
- Fasciculus gracilis - proprioceptive information from pelvic limbs
- Fasciculus cuneatus - proprioceptive information from thoracic limbs
- Dorsal and ventral spinocerebellar tracts - information to cerebellum for coordination
- Spinothalamic tracts - information to thalamus about pain, itch, touch and temperature
What is the difference between upper motor neurones and lower motor neurones?
- LMNs are located in either the ventral horn of the spinal cord or the cranial nerve nuclei of the brainstem with motor function. They innervate muscles and are part of the PNS.
- UMNs originate in the motor region of the cerebral cortex or the brain stem and carry motor information down to the LMNs
What do the following motor spinal tracts receive/transmit information about: corticospinal tracts, rubrospinal tracts, reticulospinal tracts, vestibulospinal tracts, tectospinal tracts?
- Corticospinal tracts - motor information directly from cerebral cortex, poorly developed in domestic animals
- Rubrospinal tracts - motor information from red nucleus in the brain stem
- Reticulospinal tracts - motor information from reticular formation in the brainstem
- Vestibulospinal tracts - motor information from vestibular nuclei in the brainstem
- Tectospinal tracts - motor information from the tectal region in the brainstem
List different ways we can assess proprioception
- Proprioceptive placing
- Hopping reaction
- Extensor postural thrusting
- Hip sway
- Visual and tactile placing
List different ways we can assess motor function
- Muscle tone and muscle bulk
- Patellar reflex
- Withdrawal reflex
State whether the following clinical signs would indicate an UMN or LMN lesion:
a) normal or increased muscle tone
b) decreased muscle tone
c) normal or exaggerated reflexes
d) decreased or absent reflexes
e) early and severe muscle atrophy
f) little and late (disuse) muscle atrophy
- a) UMN
- b) LMN
- c) UMN
- d) LMN
- e) LMN
- f) UMN
How do we grade spinal injuries?
0 - normal, 1 - pain (no neurological deficits), 2 - ambulatory paresis, 3 - non-ambulatory paresis, 4 - plegia, 5 - plegia with absent deep pain sensation