Pathology Glossary

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tmhealey
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29305
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Pathology Glossary
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2010-08-08 13:12:11
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  1. a- or an-
    without, or lack of
  2. abscess
    localized collection of pus in a cavity in tissue
  3. achalasia
    failure of relaxation of smooth muscle fibers
  4. achlorohydria
    absence of hydrochloric acid secretion by stomach
  5. acute
    relatively serious and severe; having a brief course
  6. acute glomerulonephritis
    an acute nonsuppurative inflammatory disease of all glomeruli of both kidneys
  7. adenocarcinoma
    malignant tumor arising in glandular epithelium
  8. adenoma
    benign tumor arising in glandular epithelium
  9. adhesion
    ability to remain together; also, scar tissue joining two parts that are usually separate
  10. agenesis
    failure of formation of a body part
  11. allergy
    altered capacity to react, especially in regard to a foreign protein
  12. amyloidosis
    a disease characterized by extracellular deposition in connective tissue of a carbohydrate protein material, amyloid
  13. anaphylaxis
    exaggerated or unusual reaction of the organism to foreign protein
  14. anasarca
    accumulation of fluid in cellular tissues of body; diffuse edema
  15. anemia
    reduction of deficiency of blood either in quantity or in quality
  16. aneurysm
    sac full of blood formed by dilation of the walls of an artery or veing
  17. angina
    choking or suffocating sensation or pain
  18. angioma
    a tumor of blood vessels
  19. anthracosis
    pneumoconiosis or lung-dust disease due to inhalation of coal pigment; coal pigmentation
  20. antibody
    new protein produced by organism in response to foreign protein or other material combining with protein, i.e., antigen
  21. antigen
    foreign protein or material capable of combining with protein which causes body to form a new protein, the antibody
  22. anuria
    absence of urine production
  23. argyria
    pigmentation due to silver salt
  24. arteriosclerosis
    group of arterial diseases characterized by thickening of the vessels, frequently with hardening and/or calcification
  25. arthritis
    inflammation of a joint
  26. Aschoff body
    characteristic myocardial connective tissue change in Rheumatic Fever, cellular collection of mononuclear and giant cells around focus of fibrinoid necrosis
  27. Ascites
    accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity
  28. asphyxia
    suffocation; anocia with increase of CO2
  29. Atelectasis
    incomplete expansion, espeically in the lungs
  30. Atheroma
    lesion produced in intima of arteries with focal accumulation of lipids, complex carbohydrates, proteins, blood and blood products, firborus tissue, and calcium deposits and associated with changes in media
  31. atresia
    absence or closure of a normal body opening
  32. atrophy
    decrease in size of cell, tissue, organ, part of or the whole body
  33. auto
    prefix relating to self or to same individuals, e.g. autograph- transplantation of tissue from one part, to another part of the same individual.
  34. autolysis
    literally self-lysis; a series of changes following death of an organism
  35. bacteremia
    proesence of bacteria in the blood
  36. benign
    not harmful, not malignant
  37. bronchiectasis
    chronic dilation of bronchi
  38. bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  39. cachexia
    body-wasting plus anemia
  40. calcification
    deposition of calcium from blood and other body fluids
  41. calculus
    concretion occuring within organism, made up in whole or in part of mineral salts
  42. caput medusa
    distention of superficial veins of abdomen centering on umbilicus as collateral circulation in portan vein obsturction
  43. carbuncle
    compound necrotizing inflammation of skin and subcutaneous tissues, usually due to staphylococcal infection
  44. carcinogen
    cancer-producing substance of force
  45. carcinoid
    argentaffin tumor, usually in intestinal tract
  46. carcinoma
    malignant epithelial tumor
  47. carcinoma in situ
    malignant epithelia cells within normal confines of limits in the body; preinvasive carcinoma
  48. caseation
    type of necrosis in which involved tissues resembles cheese grossly
  49. ceroid
    wax- like material found as crystals in disease states
  50. charcot joint
    damage to joint following nerve injury, as in tabes dorsalis
  51. chemotaxis
    cellular phenomenon of moving toward or away from a certain material.
  52. chondro-
    prefix referring to cartilage
  53. chorea
    convulsive nervous movements; both involuntary and irregular
  54. chronic
    tending to long course; opposite of acute
  55. cirrhosis
    hardening, usually of the liver
  56. clone
    strain of cells deriving from single cell
  57. coagulation
    process of changing into or being changed into a clog
  58. coma
    depressed consciousness with absence of response to stimuli
  59. communication
    transfer of information
  60. compatible
    capable of coexistence without injury
  61. continuity
    quality of duration; existence over a serial period of time
  62. control
    that which directs, checks or restrains
  63. cor pulmonale
    pulmonary heart disease; disease of the heart secondary to disease of the lungs or their vessels
  64. crescent
    epithelia proliferation in space of Bowman's capsule in subacute and chronic glomerulonephritis
  65. cretin
    one whose physical and mental development has been retarded or arrested due to thyroid deficiency
  66. cyanosis
    blueness of the skin, or other part of the body, due to insufficient oxygen
  67. cyst
    sac containg usually a fluid or semisolid material
  68. cystitis
    inflammation of the urinary bladder
  69. de-
    prefix meaning away from
  70. definition
    statement of the precise nature of a thing or meaning of a word
  71. degeneration
    retrogressive changes of cells short of necrosis
  72. development
    series of changes characteristic of an organism, including existence over a serial period of time, growth and acquisition of new properties
  73. diabetes
    literally "passing through"; increased uring output: diabetes mellitus and insipidus
  74. diagnosis
    determination of the nature of a condition or disease or a hypothetical concept concerning this
  75. differentiation
    process by with a cell acquires specialized features; as applied to neoplasms, degree to which the neoplasm resembles its normal tissue counterpart in appearance and/or function
  76. disease
    literally lack of comfort; anything that limites life in its powers, duration, or enjoyment
  77. diverticulum
    pouch or pocket leading off from a main cavity or tube
  78. dust cells
    phagocytic cells of lung containing inhaled particles
  79. dysentery
    inflammation of intestines, with blood and mucus in frequent bowel movements
  80. exlampsia
    convulsions occuring in last three months of pregnancy associated with placental, renal and hepatic lesions
  81. edema
    accumulation of fluid in body or part of body beyond normal amounts
  82. embolus
    formed material circulating in the blood stream during life and coming to rest, blocking a vessel
  83. emphysema
    air in tissues causing swelling
  84. empyema
    pus in a tissue space, ex: plueral cavity
  85. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  86. eosinophil
    having an affinity for eosin; staining pink in H&E stain, ex: eosinophil leukocyte
  87. epidemic
    disease affecting more than usual number of people in a community at one time
  88. epithelioid cell
    cell resembling epithelium usually deriving from macrophage or histiocyte
  89. epizootic
    disease affecting more than usual number of animals in a group at one time
  90. erysipelas
    reddening and inflammation of skin, usually due to streptococci, associated with constitutional symptoms
  91. etiology
    study of the cause of disease, or the cause of disease
  92. exopthalmos
    unusual protrusion of the eyeball
  93. fat necrosis
    death of fatty tissue, usually result of spill of pancreastic lipase, trauma, etc
  94. fecalith
    intestinal concentration fromed around or from feces
  95. feedback
    activity which contains within itself cessation or stoppage
  96. fever
    body temperature above normal, or (old) disease so characterized
  97. fibrinoid
    tissue material resembling fibrin found especially in collagen disease
  98. fibroid
    term for uterine fibroleiomyoma
  99. fistula
    deep ulcer often communiating with an internal organ
  100. foam cells
    cells with vacuolated cytoplasm, usually containg fat droplets in vaculoes
  101. fracture
    break in bone; occasionally of some other structure, eg: liver or spleen
  102. furuncle
    nocular staphylococcal inflammation of skin, often in relation to hair follicle or sweat gland; the common boil.
  103. gangrene
    ischemic (coagulative) necrosis of an extremity or of the appendix. When there is superimposed bacterial infection, the term "wet gangrene" may be used
  104. giant cell
    multinucleated large cells; found frequently in inflammation in late stages around foreign materials as Langhans' giant cell
  105. glycogen
    complex neutral polysaccharide, the storage carbohydrate of animals.
  106. glycosuria
    sugar in urine
  107. goiter
    enlargement of thyroid gland
  108. gout
    disturbance of purine metabolism causing urate deposits in joints and cartilages and arthritis symptoms
  109. graft
    a transplanted piece of tissue
  110. granuloma
    aggregate of epitheloid histiocytes
  111. gumma
    local lesion of tertiary syphilis with soft tumor-like formations, histiocytes
  112. hamartoma
    tumor-like collection of excess tissue or abnormally situatied tissue formed during development
  113. healing
    see REPAIR
  114. heart-failure cells
    hemosiderin-containing macrophages in lung or sputum, resulting from escape of blood into alveoli
  115. hematin
    brown to black pigment in tissue resulting from hemoglobin breakdown but not giving Prussian blue reaction of hemosiderin
  116. hematoma
    accumulation of blood within a tissue (outside of a vessel)
  117. hemocrhomatosis
    disorder of iron metabolism with excessive iron absorption; deposited iron produces cirrhosis of liver and pancreatic damage with diabetes mellitus
  118. hemofuscin
    brown pigment not containing iron found in the liver with hemosiderin in hemochromatosis
  119. hemophilia
    familial disease appearing in males, transmitted by females, characterized by absence of specific globulin in blood and imperfect coagulation
  120. hemorrhage
    extravasation of blood into extravascular space
  121. hemosiderin
    iron containing crystalline ferritin complex
  122. hepatic cirrhosis
    liver disease characterized by degeneration and regeneration of liver cells and (replacement) fibrosis
  123. hernia
    protrusion of tissue through an opening
  124. hetergraft
    piece of tissue transplanted from one species to another
  125. homeostasis
    quality of tending to uniformity or stability
  126. homograft
    piece of tissue transplanted from one animal to another of the same species
  127. hyaline
    literally glassy; used to describe homogenous amorphous deposits and materials
  128. hydro-
    prefix denoting water, in excess
  129. hydronephrosis
    dilation of kidney by urine accumulation
  130. hyper-
    prefix meaning excessive, above or beyond
  131. hyperplasia
    increase in size of a part due to increase in number of units
  132. hypertrophy
    increase in size of a part due to increase in cell size
  133. hypo-
    prefix meaning below, inferior, lacking
  134. icterus
    jaundice
  135. immunity
    condition of being immune
  136. inclusion body
    characteristic intracellular (nuclear or cytoplasmic) body found especially in cells affected by viruses
  137. individuality
    specificity; quality of possesing separate identity
  138. induced
    brought about by some means; not natural
  139. infarction
    necrosis of tissued due to ischemia
  140. infection
    presence of pathogenic organisms in body and their effects; entrance of pathogenic organisms into body
  141. infiltration
    material in tissue not normall present
  142. inflammation
    local cellular and vascular reaction to injury
  143. information
    sert of facts concerning the state of a sorce
  144. injury
    harm or damage; produced disturbance of structure and/or function
  145. interstitial
    in spaces of a tissue; relating to such spaces
  146. intussusception
    passage of one portion of intestine into an adjacent portion
  147. invasion
    entrance of material into abnormal situation
  148. ischemia
    descrease in blood supply to cells or tissue
  149. iso-graft
    piece of tissue transplanted from one animal to another genetically related animal
  150. -itis
    suffix meaning inflammation
  151. jaundice
    yellow appearance of skin, mucosa, and conjunctives, and all organs, due to excess bilirubin in serum or organs
  152. kappa particles
    rickettsia-like bodies in strain of paramecia injuring other paramecia of same strain which do not possess kappa particles
  153. karyo-
    prefix relating to the nucleus
  154. karyolysis
    fading of nuclear chromatin related to enzymatic degradation of the DNA
  155. Karyorrhexis
    nuclaer breakdown with residual granules
  156. keloid
    skin tumor or mass specifically following wounding or injury
  157. kyphosis
    hunchback; dorsal durvature of the spine
  158. Langhans' Giant Cell
    multinucleated large cell formed in relation to foreign material or bodies
  159. lesion
    characteristic change in organism produced by disease
  160. leukemia
    malignant proliferation of white blood cells
  161. leukemoid
    reaction resembling leukemia; extreme leukocytosis of normal cells
  162. leukopenia
    reduction in number of circulationg leukocytes
  163. lobar pneumonia
    pneumococcal infection of one or more lobes of one or both lungs
  164. lupus
    specific disease of skin with tissue destruction and sometimes systemic lesions of collage
  165. lymphadenitis
    inflammation of lymph nodes
  166. lymphedema
    edema due to lymphatic obstruction
  167. malacia
    softening of tissue in desease ex: encephalomalacia, osteomalacia
  168. malignant
    tendency of a neoplasm to infiltrate and metastasize
  169. melanin
    pigment granules, usually black, derived from indole and present in animals.
  170. melena
    the passage of dark, pitchy, and grumous stools stained with blood pigments or with altered blood
  171. metaplasia
    replacement of one type of cell in tissue by another
  172. miliary
    resembling a millet seed; marked by multiple small lesions barely visible to the naked eye
  173. mixed tumor
    tumor or neoplasm made up of one or more than one cell or tissue type
  174. mucocele
    accumulation of mucus with cyst formation, as in appendiz
  175. myxedema
    disease due to thyroid deficeincy characterized by deposition of excess ground substance in subuctaneous tissue and viscera
  176. natural
    occuring spontaneously; not made, brought about or induced
  177. necrosis
    death of cells
  178. neoplasia
    process of new growth or tumor formation
  179. neuronophagia
    destruction of nerve cells by phagocytic action, as in acute anterior poliomyelitis, etc
  180. nevus
    new growth of skin, usually containing nerve elements, also congenital dilation of blood vessels in part of skin
  181. obsolescence
    process of passing out of existence or becoming obsolete
  182. obstruction
    something that impedes or blocks a flow
  183. oliguria
    decrease in urine volume
  184. organization
    ingrowth of fibroblasts and endothelial cells into a fibrinous exudate, converting it to a scar, or into a thrombus, converting it to a fibrous plug with variable re-canalization of the vessel lumen
  185. papillary
    projecting from a surface
  186. papilloma
    benign epithelial neoplasm often composed of finger-like projections fron an epithlial surface
  187. para-
    prefix meaning behind, eg para-appendiceal
  188. paralysis
    loss or decrease of ability to move
  189. parasite
    an organism that lives on or withing another without itself contributing
  190. paresis
    slight or partial paralysis
  191. pathogen
    disease producing agent
  192. pathogenesis
    development of a morbid condition or disease
  193. pathology
    the biological discipline which studies disease (or studies life in its abnormal forms and activities)
  194. Pellagra
    literally rough skin; clinical syndrome due to niacin deficiency, characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia
  195. peptic
    related to digestion
  196. perforation
    a piercing or making a hole, as in a viscus
  197. peri-
    prefix signifying around, eg periarteritis: inflammation around the artery
  198. phagocyte
    cell of the body that ingests particulate matter
  199. phythisis
    a wasting away (or a part of the body); vernacular for pulmonary tuberculosis
  200. pigment
    any dye or paint; any natural or abnormal coloring matter of the body
  201. pneumonia
    inflammation of lungs, usually with consolidation and systemic symptoms
  202. pneumonitis
    localized inflammation of lungs
  203. poison
    substance cabable of interfereing with metabolic processes of a cell or part of cell, of a tissue, organ, or organism
  204. polycythemia
    excess of erythrocytes
  205. polyp
    benign or malignant neoplasm producing a visible projection above a mucosa surface, often into a lumen
  206. polypoid
    like a polyp, projecting from a surface
  207. process
    series of changes
  208. prognosis
    prediction of probably outcome and/or course of a disease
  209. purpura
    condition with confluent small hemorrhages over body surfaces
  210. pus
    liquid material containg brocken down leukocytes and cells; usually resulting from inflammation
  211. pyelonephritis
    inflammation of pelvis and interstitial tissue of the kidney
  212. pyemia
    septicemia with pus in blood and secondary sites of suppuration
  213. pyo-
    prefix meaning pus
  214. pyrexia
    fever, temperature above normal
  215. pyuria
    pus in the urine
  216. radiation
    (emission of) waves or rays of heat, light, x-ray, or other radioactive materials
  217. regeneration
    renewal of lost tissue or parts
  218. repair
    restoration of continuity after injury
  219. rheumatic
    relating to inflammation of joints or rheymatism
  220. rigor
    rigidity or stiffness
  221. sarcoma
    malignant tumor of mesenchymal tissue
  222. scar
    remnants or residuum of the healing process
  223. scler-
    prefix meaning hard
  224. seminoma
    epithelial tumor arising in the testes
  225. sessile
    with broad base of attachment
  226. shock
    severe depression of bodily activities caused by infection, hemorrhage, trauma, etc.
  227. sign
    any objective evidence of disease
  228. signal
    that which affects a receptor; information
  229. sinus
    pathologically, a suppurating channel or fistula
  230. sludge
    particles in suspension in viscid fluid; settling out equals sludging
  231. spasm
    sudden violent involuntary constriction of muscles or sudden transitory constriction of a canal, passage or opening.
  232. steatorrheal
    excess of fat in stools; fatty stools
  233. stenosis
    narrowing of a duct, canal or channel or a natural passage
  234. subacute
    less than completely acute, between acute and chronic
  235. symptom
    any functional evidence of disase or of a patient's condition
  236. syndrome
    a set of symptoms that occur together
  237. tabes
    wasting or atrophy or a part, e.g. tabes dorasalis or atrophy of dorsal spinal columns in late syphilis
  238. teleology
    type of thinking emphasizing purpose interpretation of structure and function
  239. template
    pattern, mould, or guage determinig configuration of structure
  240. thrombus
    blood clot formation within intact vessel
  241. tolerance
    accepted without reaction or without usual reaction
  242. tophus
    collection or urates in tissues in gout
  243. transfusion
    exchange of fluid between two organisms; blood transfusion, lymph transfusion
  244. transplant
    exchange of tissue between two oranisms
  245. transport
    circulation or movement of materials
  246. trauma
    injury or wound
  247. tremor
    involuntary trembling or quivering
  248. tubercle
    small nodule, usually rleated to or caused by M. tuberculosis
  249. tumor
    literally any swlling of a part; usually a neoplasm
  250. ulcer
    lack of continuity of a mucous or cutaneous surface
  251. uremia
    excess urea in blood; symptom complex of renal failure
  252. varix
    enlarged and dilated vessel, usually tortuous, usually in vein
  253. vesicle
    small collection of fluid, eg: sunburn vesicle
  254. volvulus
    intestinal ostruction due to twisting of bowel
  255. wound healing
    restoration of continuity after wounding
  256. xanthoma
    literally yellow substance; subcutaneous collection of cholesterol and foam cells
  257. xerophthalmia
    literally dry eye; atrophic conjunctivitis from vitamin A deficiency.

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