Card Set Information
Which benzodiazepines are short acting (less daytime side effects)?
What is lead -time bias?
Early detection of a disease is confused with increased survival.
What is observer bias?
Resaercher's belief in the efficacy of a treatment changes the outcome of that treatment.
If observer expects treatment group to show signs of recovery, then he is more likely to document positive outcomes.
Where does the Right gonadal vein drain into?
Right ovaries/ testes
Right gonadal vein
Where does the left gonadal vein drain into?
Left ovaries/ testes
Left gonadal vein
Left renal vein
Where are varicoceles most common and why?
Because of the left spermatic/gonodal vein enters the left renal vein at a 90 degree angle, flow is less laminar.
Evaluate this hysteogram.
Evaluate this hysterogram.
Incomplete fusion of
Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts.
Evaluate the hysterogram below.
Incomplete resorption of septum.
Evaluate the image below.
Complete failure of fusion of the
Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts.
Double uterus, vagina and cervix.
Complete failure of fusion of the paramesonephric/ mullerian ducts result in?
Double uterus, vagina and cervix
Incomplete fusion of the Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts results in?
In which pathology is this cell type found?
Vaginal squamous epithelial cells covered with multiple small, adherent bacteria
This cell type is found in which pathology?
vaginal squamous epithelial cells covered with multiple small, adherent bacteria.
Grayish-whitish vaginal discharge with a "fishy" odor?
What can be used to diagnose Gardnerella vaginalis?
Amine whiff test
- mixing discharge with 10%
Describe the vaginitis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. How do we treat?
Describe the vaginosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.
(for patient and partner)
This type of organism is found in which infection?
Motile, flagellated trophozoites on wet mount.
Motile, flagellated trophozoites on wet mount are diagnostic of?
Label the diagram below.
1- Abdominal aorta
3- Left Crus of diaphragm
5-Right Crus of diaphragm
What is the function of single-stranded DNA binding proteins?
Prevents strands from reannealing.
In which direction is the leading strand synthesized with respect to the replication fork?
Leading- towards the replication fork.
In which direction is the lagging strand synthesized with respect to the replication fork?
Lagging- away from the replication fork.
In which direction does DNA synthesis occur on the leading strand/ lagging strand?
DNA synthesis always occur in the
on both strands.
This enzyme removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA.
DNA polymerase I
What is the function of DNA polymerase I?
Degrades RNA primer and replaces it with DNA
What is the function of DNA polymerase III?
Elongates leading and lagging strand.
Which strand (leading/lagging) require RNA primers to initate DNA polymerization?
Both strands. But the lagging strand uses more.
How does sample size affect a study?
The larger the sample size, the greater the ability to detect a difference when one truly exists.
Statistical significance is acheived what what value of p?
= Statistical significance
What is Berkson's bias?
Selecting hospital patients as control group.
They are less healthy than general population.
CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
Fragile X syndrome -
GAA trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
Friedreich ataxia -
CAG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
CTG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
Myotonic dystrophy -
Describe the findings of an Imperforate anus. What other defects are associated with it?
Manifests during the first days of life as
inability to pass meconium.
instead of anal opening is found.
from urethra/ vagina if fistula is present.
Urinary tract defects
What is this protein structure shown below?
What is the secretory form of IgA?
- 2 monomers, J chain, secretory component.
Monomer when in circulation.
Stimulation of the V1 receptor causes?
Vasoconstriction and increased prostaglandin release.
Stimulation of V2 receptors causes?
Increased water permeability and reabsoroption in
collecting tubules in the kidney.
Inserts aquaporin channels.