USMLE5

Card Set Information

Author:
rere_girl4ever
ID:
293087
Filename:
USMLE5
Updated:
2015-01-15 16:11:57
Tags:
USMLE5
Folders:
USMLE
Description:
USMLE
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user rere_girl4ever on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Which benzodiazepines are short acting (less daytime side effects)?
    • Alprazolam
    • Triazolam
    • Oxazepam
    • Midazolam
  2. What is lead -time bias?
    Early detection of a disease is confused with increased survival.
  3. What is observer bias?
    • Resaercher's belief in the efficacy of a  treatment changes the outcome of that treatment.
    • If observer expects treatment group to show signs of recovery, then he is more likely to document positive outcomes.
  4. Where does the Right gonadal vein drain into?
    Right ovaries/ testes -> Right gonadal vein -> IVC
  5. Where does the left gonadal vein drain into?
    Left ovaries/ testes -> Left gonadal vein -> Left renal vein -> IVC
  6. Where are varicoceles most common and why?
    • On the LEFT.
    • Because of the left spermatic/gonodal vein enters the left renal vein at a 90 degree angle, flow is less laminar.
  7. Evaluate this hysteogram.
    Normal uterus
  8. Evaluate this hysterogram.
    • Bicornurate uterus
    • Incomplete fusion of Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts.
  9. Evaluate the hysterogram below.
    • Septate uterus
    • Incomplete resorption of septum.
  10. Evaluate the image below.

    • Didelphys uterus.
    • Complete failure of fusion of the Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts.
    • Double uterus, vagina and cervix.
  11. Complete failure of fusion of the paramesonephric/ mullerian ducts result in?
    • Didelphys uterus
    • Double uterus, vagina and cervix
  12. Incomplete fusion of the Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts results in?
    Bicornurate uterus
  13. In which pathology is this cell type found?
    • Gardnerella vaginalis
    • Clue cells-/ vaginal epithelial cells
    • Vaginal squamous epithelial cells covered with multiple small, adherent bacteria
  14. This cell type is found in which pathology?
    • Gardnerella vaginalis
    • Clue cells- vaginal squamous epithelial cells covered with multiple small, adherent bacteria.
  15. Grayish-whitish vaginal discharge with a "fishy" odor?
    • Gardnerella vaginalis
    • Clue cells
  16. What can be used to diagnose Gardnerella vaginalis?
    Amine whiff test- mixing discharge with 10% Potassium hydroxide enhances odor
  17. Describe the vaginitis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. How do we treat?
    • Greyish/white vaginal discharge
    • Fishy smell
    • Associated with sexual activity
    • Nonpainful
    • Tx: METRONIDAZOLE or CLINDAMYCIN
  18. Describe the vaginosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.
    • Foul smelling
    • Greenish/ yellow discharge
    • Itching and burning
    • Tx: Metronidazole (for patient and partner)
  19. This type of organism is found in which infection?
    • Trichomonas vaginalis
    • Motile, flagellated trophozoites on wet mount.
  20. Motile, flagellated trophozoites on wet mount are diagnostic of?
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  21. Label the diagram below.
    • 1- Abdominal aorta
    • 2- IVC
    • 3- Left Crus of diaphragm
    • 4- Liver
    • 5-Right Crus of diaphragm
    • 6- Spleen
    • 7- Stomach
  22. What is the function of single-stranded DNA binding proteins?
    Prevents strands from reannealing.
  23. In which direction is the leading strand synthesized with respect to the replication fork?
    Leading- towards the replication fork.
  24. In which direction is the lagging strand synthesized with respect to the replication fork?
    Lagging- away from the replication fork.
  25. In which direction does DNA synthesis occur on the leading strand/ lagging strand?
    DNA synthesis always occur in the 5'-3' direction on both strands.
  26. This enzyme removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA.
    DNA polymerase I
  27. What is the function of DNA polymerase I?
    • Prokaryotic only
    • Degrades RNA primer and replaces it with DNA
  28. What is the function of DNA polymerase III?
    Elongates leading and lagging strand.
  29. Which strand (leading/lagging) require RNA primers to initate DNA polymerization?
    Both strands. But the lagging strand uses more.
  30. How does sample size affect a study?
    The larger the sample size, the greater the ability to detect a difference when one truly exists.
  31. Statistical significance is acheived what what value of p?
    p<0.05= Statistical significance
  32. What is Berkson's bias?
    • Selecting hospital patients as control group.
    • They are less healthy than general population.
  33. CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
    Fragile X syndrome  -CGG
  34. GAA trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
    Friedreich ataxia -GAA
  35. CAG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
    Huntington disease-  CAG
  36. CTG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
    Myotonic dystrophy - CTG
  37. Describe the findings of an Imperforate anus. What other defects are associated with it?
    • Manifests during the first days of life as inability to pass meconium.
    • Dimple instead of anal opening is found.
    • Meconium may discharge from urethra/ vagina if fistula is present.
    • Urinary tract defects is common.
  38. What is this protein structure shown below?
    • IgA dimer
  39. What is the secretory form of IgA?
    • Dimer- 2 monomers, J chain, secretory component.
    • Monomer when in circulation.
  40. Stimulation of the V1 receptor causes?
    Vasoconstriction and increased prostaglandin release.
  41. Stimulation of V2 receptors causes?
    • Increased water permeability and reabsoroption in medullary collecting tubules in the kidney.
    • Inserts aquaporin channels.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview