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Which benzodiazepines are short acting (less daytime side effects)?
What is lead -time bias?
Early detection of a disease is confused with increased survival.
What is observer bias?
- Resaercher's belief in the efficacy of a treatment changes the outcome of that treatment.
- If observer expects treatment group to show signs of recovery, then he is more likely to document positive outcomes.
Where does the Right gonadal vein drain into?
Right ovaries/ testes -> Right gonadal vein -> IVC
Where does the left gonadal vein drain into?
Left ovaries/ testes -> Left gonadal vein -> Left renal vein -> IVC
Where are varicoceles most common and why?
- On the LEFT.
- Because of the left spermatic/gonodal vein enters the left renal vein at a 90 degree angle, flow is less laminar.
Evaluate this hysteogram.
Evaluate this hysterogram.
- Bicornurate uterusIncomplete fusion of Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts.
Evaluate the hysterogram below.
- Septate uterusIncomplete resorption of septum.
Evaluate the image below.
- Didelphys uterus.
- Complete failure of fusion of the Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts.
- Double uterus, vagina and cervix.
Complete failure of fusion of the paramesonephric/ mullerian ducts result in?
- Didelphys uterus
- Double uterus, vagina and cervix
Incomplete fusion of the Paramesonephric/ Mullerian ducts results in?
In which pathology is this cell type found?
- Gardnerella vaginalis
- Clue cells-/ vaginal epithelial cellsVaginal squamous epithelial cells covered with multiple small, adherent bacteria
This cell type is found in which pathology?
- Gardnerella vaginalis
- Clue cells- vaginal squamous epithelial cells covered with multiple small, adherent bacteria.
Grayish-whitish vaginal discharge with a "fishy" odor?
- Gardnerella vaginalis
- Clue cells
What can be used to diagnose Gardnerella vaginalis?
Amine whiff test- mixing discharge with 10% Potassium hydroxide enhances odor
Describe the vaginitis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. How do we treat?
- Greyish/white vaginal discharge
- Fishy smell
- Associated with sexual activityNonpainful
- Tx: METRONIDAZOLE or CLINDAMYCIN
Describe the vaginosis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.
- Foul smelling
- Greenish/ yellow discharge
- Itching and burning
- Tx: Metronidazole (for patient and partner)
This type of organism is found in which infection?
- Trichomonas vaginalisMotile, flagellated trophozoites on wet mount.
Motile, flagellated trophozoites on wet mount are diagnostic of?
Label the diagram below.
- 1- Abdominal aorta
- 2- IVC
- 3- Left Crus of diaphragm
- 4- Liver
- 5-Right Crus of diaphragm
- 6- Spleen
- 7- Stomach
What is the function of single-stranded DNA binding proteins?
Prevents strands from reannealing.
In which direction is the leading strand synthesized with respect to the replication fork?
Leading- towards the replication fork.
In which direction is the lagging strand synthesized with respect to the replication fork?
Lagging- away from the replication fork.
In which direction does DNA synthesis occur on the leading strand/ lagging strand?
DNA synthesis always occur in the 5'-3' direction on both strands.
This enzyme removes the RNA primer and replaces it with DNA.
DNA polymerase I
What is the function of DNA polymerase I?
- Prokaryotic only
- Degrades RNA primer and replaces it with DNA
What is the function of DNA polymerase III?
Elongates leading and lagging strand.
Which strand (leading/lagging) require RNA primers to initate DNA polymerization?
Both strands. But the lagging strand uses more.
How does sample size affect a study?
The larger the sample size, the greater the ability to detect a difference when one truly exists.
Statistical significance is acheived what what value of p?
p<0.05= Statistical significance
What is Berkson's bias?
- Selecting hospital patients as control group.
- They are less healthy than general population.
CGG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
Fragile X syndrome -CGG
GAA trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
Friedreich ataxia -GAA
CAG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
Huntington disease- CAG
CTG trinucleotide repeat expansions are found in which disease?
Myotonic dystrophy - CTG
Describe the findings of an Imperforate anus. What other defects are associated with it?
- Manifests during the first days of life as inability to pass meconium.
- Dimple instead of anal opening is found.
- Meconium may discharge from urethra/ vagina if fistula is present.
- Urinary tract defects is common.
What is this protein structure shown below?
- IgA dimer
What is the secretory form of IgA?
- Dimer- 2 monomers, J chain, secretory component.
- Monomer when in circulation.
Stimulation of the V1 receptor causes?
Vasoconstriction and increased prostaglandin release.
Stimulation of V2 receptors causes?
- Increased water permeability and reabsoroption in medullary collecting tubules in the kidney.
- Inserts aquaporin channels.