20th century Architecture
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parker & Unwin
The modern city: city beautiful idel
what was the first architectural school
Before the first architectural school how did architects learn the trade?
on the job. a senior at the firm would teach them
The modern city
tony garnier, circa 1901-1917
sant' elia dwg 1913
describe the masonry style
building of structures from individual laid units bound together by mortar. common materials are brick, stone, marble granite, travertine, limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, stucco, tile, and cob.
highly durable for of construction.
the modern city: Bruno taut, and crystaline architecture.
medieval way of life, glass to replace brick
tassel house, Brussels 1892
- all ideals compose of the same industrial form
bass steel, natural light via skylights
arts and crafts movement
it was a rejection of industrialization style, and academic architecture, for craftmanship
things that are more important than the style?
function, site, materials, client, climate, date, hand or factory made, level of technology/glass technology, tempered glass, anti-glare
Adolf Loos (1909)
was against ornamentation specifically, ornamentation
is a pointed roof, roof pitch is a numerical measurement of the steepness of a roof
the unification of art and industry.
what is a gaybelled roof?
it is like a window roof point that extends from the main pitched roof.
think how to structure, its roof, is supported.
places of entertainment often have more?
- is for an individual or entity.
- is it a wealthy individual or middl class.
if money is an issue:
remove all sloped roofs; flat roofs use less material.
also less skylights
concrete flooring verse wood flooring.
landscape design could be simplified
avoid curves, triangles, trapezoids, basically any more complex shape.
build taller rather than wide; money is saved because the roof and foundation is smaller.
consider the size of the lot along with the property
Basic things to focus on during the midterm
client, budget, site, program or list of operation requirements, materials, level of technology, mode of construction, type of structure, disposition of places or the plan, lighting ornamentation, the architect's aesthetic values or architectural aims, as well as broader cultural values.
remember not all of these will be of equal importance. Determine which of these are the most important from what I see.
More complex things to think about during the final
how close the two buildings were built? How do the two buildings compare? what do they have in common? How do they differ? How do I account for the similarities and differences?
Are they residential or commercial? What type of cities are they located? What were the circumstances of the cities and countries at that time? focus on the significant features and how they compare and contrast.
- Explain the reason for those differences.
- individual design philosophies
high modernist, Bauhaus, mid-century modern, international style, brutalism
art school in germany, 1919-1933, founded by walter gropius, was closed from pressure of nazi-led government.
1933 to 1965
The city of Palm Springs, California is noted for its many examples of Mid-Century modern architecture
emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of modern architecture
The term "International Style" first came into use via a 1932 exhibition curated by Hitchcock and Johnson, Modern Architecture
rectilinear forms; ii. light, taut plane surfaces that have been completely stripped of applied ornamentation and decoration
open interior spaces
lass and steel, in combination with usually less visible reinforced concrete
after World War Two
Choice for vast-scale urban development projects, "cities within cities", intended to maximise the amount of floor space for a given site
flourished from the 1950s to the mid-1970s
French béton brut, or "raw concrete"
term used by Le Corbusier to describe his choice of material
popular with governmental and institutional clients
Fortress like, exposed concrete
or ruggedly detailed brickwork and concrete together
rare for corporate projects
doesn't look comfortable or easy
think Chrysler building in New York.
first appeared in France after World War I and began flourishing internationally in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s before its popularity waned after World War II
bold geometric shapes and lavish ornamentation
emerged from the interwar period when rapid industrialisation was transforming culture
embrace of technology
During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance and faith in social and technological progress
- Asymmetrical shapes
- Extensive use of arches and curved formsCurved glassCurving,
- plant-like embellishments
- Stained glass
- Japanese motifs
modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s
Communist social purpose
Windows are usually square or rectangular
round windows as well, usually at the top of the building
development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s
unpredictability and controlled chaos
characterized by fragmentation, an interest in manipulating a structure's surface, skin, non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope
popular during King Edward VII of the United Kingdom's reign
1901 to 1914
less ornate than high or late Victorian architecture
developed in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts, that especially developed and dominated in Germany
sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms
Distortion of form for an emotional effect.
Subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of inner experience.
An underlying effort at achieving the new, original, and visionary.
Often hybrid solutions, irreducible to a single concept.
Themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves, mountains, lightning, crystal and rock formations.
 As such it is more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which characterized its close contemporary art nouveau.
Utilises creative potential of artisan craftsmanship.
Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical.
Expressionist architecture also tends more towards the romanesque and the rococo than the classical.
Though a movement in Europe, expressionism is as eastern as western.
It draws as much from Moorish, Islamic, Egyptian, and Indian art and architecture as from Roman or Greek.
Conception of architecture as a work of art.
developed by architects of fascist societies in the early 20th century
gained popularity in the late 1920s
style resembles that of ancient Rome
lack ostentatious design, and were constructed with symmetry, simplicity, and a general lack of ornateness
scarce since world war two.
enerally very large and symmetric with sharp non-rounded edges
buildings purposefully conveyed a sense of awe and intimidation through their size
limestone and other durable stones in order to last the entirety of the fascist era
very plain with little or no decoration and lacked any complexity in design
the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building
born in Italy
long dynamic lines
urgency and lyricism
it was a part of Futurism, an artistic movement founded by the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti
machine age and even a glorification of war and violence were among the themes of the Futurists
Art Deco style of architecture with its streamlined forms was regarded as futuristic
form of modern architecture, a subdivision of futurist architecture
car culture, jets, the Space Age, and the Atomic Age
Originating in Southern California during the late 1940s and continuing approximately into the mid-1960s
popular among motels, coffee houses and gas stations
and bold use of glass, steel and neon
by Space Age designs symbolic of motion, such as boomerangs, flying saucers, atoms and parabolas
the oldest McDonald's stand
emerged in the 1970s
incorporating elements of high-tech industry and technology into building design
Like Brutalism, Structural Expressionist buildings reveal their structure on the outside as well as the inside
visual emphasis placed on the internal steel and/or concrete skeletal
prominent display of the building's technical and functional components
Glass walls and steel frames
café Castell dels tres Dragons
Catalonia drawing on Medieval and Arab styles
rich variety of historically-derived elements
predominance of the curve over the straight line
rich decoration and detail, by the frequent use of vegetal and other organic motifs, the taste for asymmetry, a refined aestheticism and dynamic shapes
think that crazy Spanish movie
is a reaction to the complexity of postmodern architecture and eclecticism, seeking greater simplicity
- continues modernism as a dominant form of architecture in the 20th and 21st centuries
- especially in corporate offices
reject classical ornamentation
designed to be largely monolithic and functional
contemporary movement in architecture that continues the practice of classical, historicist and traditional architecture
not a homogeneous architectural style and can appear in various forms, contemporary classical buildings might be also described with the terms Neo-Historism
a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world through design approaches so sympathetic and well integrated with its site, that buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition.
began as an international style
first examples of which are generally cited as being from the 1950
did not become a movement until the late 1970
in architecture is defined as "the science or art of construction, both in relation to use and artistic design
It refers not just to the "activity of making the materially requisite construction that answers certain needs, but rather to the activity that raises this construction to an art form." It is concerned with the modeling of material to bring the material into presence: from the physical into the meta-physical world
architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity
faceting of form, spatial ambiguity, transparency, and multiplicity
is the geometric information which remains when location, scale, orientation and reflection are removed from the description of a geometric object. That is, the result of moving a shape around, enlarging it, rotating it, or reflecting it in a mirror is the same shape as the original, and not a distinct shape
what are operational requirements?
the basis for system requirements. MITRE SE Roles & Expectations: MITRE systems engineers (SEs) are expected to be able to understand the users' needs based on the operational needs assessment (i.e., what mission area capability gaps need to be addressed).
Operational requirements are those statements that "identify the essential capabilities, associated requirements, performance measures, and the process or series of actions to be taken in effecting the results that are desired in order to address mission area deficiencies, evolving applications or threats, emerging technologies, or system cost improvements
the main exterior face of a building
unnecessary rain water drain
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