20th century Architecture

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20th century Architecture
2015-02-26 14:15:15

20th century architecture
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  1. Garden city
    parker & Unwin

  2. The modern city: city beautiful idel
    purely astatic
  3. what was the first architectural school
  4. Before the first architectural school how did architects learn the trade?
    on the job. a senior at the firm would teach them
  5. The modern city
    tony garnier, circa 1901-1917
  6. futuristic ideal
    sant' elia dwg 1913
  7. describe the masonry style
    building of structures from individual laid units bound together by mortar. common materials are brick, stone, marble granite, travertine, limestone, cast stone, concrete block, glass block, stucco, tile, and cob. 

    highly durable for of construction.
  8. the modern city: Bruno taut, and crystaline architecture.
    medieval way of life, glass to replace brick
  9. victor horta
    tassel house, Brussels 1892

    • 1892-93
    • all ideals compose of the same industrial form

    bass steel, natural light via skylights
  10. arts and crafts movement
    it was a rejection of industrialization style, and academic architecture, for craftmanship

    William moore
  11. things that are more important than the style?
    function, site, materials, client, climate, date, hand or factory made, level of technology/glass technology, tempered glass, anti-glare
  12. Adolf Loos (1909)
    was against ornamentation specifically, ornamentation
  13. pitched roof
    is a pointed roof, roof pitch is a numerical measurement of the steepness of a roof
  14. hjbh
    the unification of art and industry.
  15. what is a gaybelled roof?
    it is like a window roof point that extends from the main pitched roof.
  16. think how to structure, its roof, is supported.
    mid term
  17. places of entertainment often have more?
  18. Client
    • is for an individual or entity. 
    • is it a wealthy individual or middl class.
  19. budget
    if money is an issue:

    remove all sloped roofs; flat roofs use less material. 

    also less skylights 

    concrete flooring verse wood flooring.

    landscape design could be simplified 

    remove ornamentation

    avoid curves, triangles, trapezoids, basically any more complex shape.

    build smaller

    build taller rather than wide; money is saved because the roof and foundation is smaller. 

    consider the size of the lot along with the property
  20. Basic things to focus on during the midterm
    client, budget, site, program or list of operation requirements, materials, level of technology, mode of construction, type of structure, disposition of places or the plan, lighting ornamentation, the architect's aesthetic values or architectural aims, as well as broader cultural values.

    remember not all of these will be of equal importance. Determine which of these are the most important from what I see.
  21. More complex things to think about during the final
    how close the two buildings were built? How do the two buildings compare? what do they have in common? How do they differ? How do I account for the similarities and differences?

    Are they residential or commercial? What type of cities are they located? What were the circumstances of the cities and countries at that time? focus on the significant features and how they compare and contrast.

    • Explain the reason for those differences. 
    • geological
    • cultural
    • economic
    • historical
    • individual design philosophies
  22. modernist architecture
    high modernist, Bauhaus, mid-century modern, international style, brutalism
  23. bauhaus
    art school in germany, 1919-1933, founded by walter gropius, was closed from pressure of nazi-led government. 

    German modernism
  24. mid-century modern
    1933 to 1965

    The city of Palm Springs, California is noted for its many examples of Mid-Century modern architecture
  25. internation style
    emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of modern architecture

    The term "International Style" first came into use via a 1932 exhibition curated by Hitchcock and Johnson, Modern Architecture

    rectilinear forms; ii. light, taut plane surfaces that have been completely stripped of applied ornamentation and decoration

    open interior spaces

    lass and steel, in combination with usually less visible reinforced concrete

    after World War Two

    Choice for vast-scale urban development projects, "cities within cities", intended to maximise the amount of floor space for a given site
  26. Brutalist
    flourished from the 1950s to the mid-1970s

    French béton brut, or "raw concrete"

    term used by Le Corbusier to describe his choice of material

    popular with governmental and institutional clients

    Fortress like, exposed concrete 

    or ruggedly detailed brickwork and concrete together

    rare for corporate projects

    doesn't look comfortable or easy
  27. Art Deco
    think Chrysler building in New York. 

    first appeared in France after World War I and began flourishing internationally in the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s before its popularity waned after World War II

    bold geometric shapes and lavish ornamentation

    emerged from the interwar period when rapid industrialisation was transforming culture

    embrace of technology

    During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance and faith in social and technological progress
  28. Art Nouveau
    • Asymmetrical shapes
    • Extensive use of arches and curved formsCurved glassCurving,
    • plant-like embellishments
    • Mosaics
    • Stained glass
    • Japanese motifs
  29. Constructivist
    modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s

    Communist social purpose

    • minimal
    • geometric
    • spatial
    • architectonic
    • experimental

    Windows are usually square or rectangular

    round windows as well, usually at the top of the building
  30. deconstructivism
    development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s

    unpredictability and controlled chaos

    characterized by fragmentation, an interest in manipulating a structure's surface, skin, non-rectilinear shapes which appear to distort and dislocate elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope
  31. Edwardian
    popular during King Edward VII of the United Kingdom's reign

    1901 to 1914

    less ornate than high or late Victorian architecture
  32. Expressionist architecture
    developed in Europe during the first decades of the 20th century in parallel with the expressionist visual and performing arts, that especially developed and dominated in Germany

    sometimes inspired by natural biomorphic forms

    especially glass

    Distortion of form for an emotional effect.

    [8]Subordination of realism to symbolic or stylistic expression of inner experience.

    An underlying effort at achieving the new, original, and visionary.

    Often hybrid solutions, irreducible to a single concept.

    [9]Themes of natural romantic phenomena, such as caves, mountains, lightning, crystal and rock formations.

    [10] As such it is more mineral and elemental than florid and organic which characterized its close contemporary art nouveau.

    Utilises creative potential of artisan craftsmanship.

    Tendency more towards the gothic than the classical.

    Expressionist architecture also tends more towards the romanesque and the rococo than the classical.

    Though a movement in Europe, expressionism is as eastern as western.

    It draws as much from Moorish, Islamic, Egyptian, and Indian art and architecture as from Roman or Greek.

    [11]Conception of architecture as a work of art.[9]
  33. avant garde
  34. Fascist
    developed by architects of fascist societies in the early 20th century

    gained popularity in the late 1920s

    style resembles that of ancient Rome

    lack ostentatious design, and were constructed with symmetry, simplicity, and a general lack of ornateness

    scarce since world war two.

    enerally very large and symmetric with sharp non-rounded edges

    buildings purposefully conveyed a sense of awe and intimidation through their size

    limestone and other durable stones in order to last the entirety of the fascist era

    very plain with little or no decoration and lacked any complexity in design
  35. functionalism
    the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building
  36. Futurist
    born in Italy

    strong chromaticism

    long dynamic lines

    suggesting speed


    urgency and lyricism

    it was a part of Futurism, an artistic movement founded by the poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti

    machine age and even a glorification of war and violence were among the themes of the Futurists

    Art Deco style of architecture with its streamlined forms was regarded as futuristic
  37. Googie
    form of modern architecture, a subdivision of futurist architecture

     car culture, jets, the Space Age, and the Atomic Age

    Originating in Southern California during the late 1940s and continuing approximately into the mid-1960s

    popular among motels, coffee houses and gas stations

    upswept roofs


    and bold use of glass, steel and neon

    by Space Age designs symbolic of motion, such as boomerangs, flying saucers, atoms and parabolas 

     the oldest McDonald's stand
  38. High-tech
    Late Modernism

    Structural Expressionism

    emerged in the 1970s

    incorporating elements of high-tech industry and technology into building design

    Like Brutalism, Structural Expressionist buildings reveal their structure on the outside as well as the inside

    visual emphasis placed on the internal steel and/or concrete skeletal

    prominent display of the building's technical and functional components

    Glass walls and steel frames
  39. Modernisme
    Catalan modernism


    café Castell dels tres Dragons

    Catalonia drawing on Medieval and Arab styles

     rich variety of historically-derived elements

    predominance of the curve over the straight line

    rich decoration and detail, by the frequent use of vegetal and other organic motifs, the taste for asymmetry, a refined aestheticism and dynamic shapes 

    think that crazy Spanish movie
  40. Neomodern
    neomodernist art

    is a reaction to the complexity of postmodern architecture and eclecticism, seeking greater simplicity

    • continues modernism as a dominant form of architecture in the 20th and 21st centuries
    • '
    • especially in corporate offices

    reject classical ornamentation

    designed to be largely monolithic and functional
  41. New Classical
    contemporary movement in architecture that continues the practice of classical, historicist and traditional architecture

    not a homogeneous architectural style and can appear in various forms, contemporary classical buildings might be also described with the terms Neo-Historism
  42. Organic
    a philosophy of architecture which promotes harmony between human habitation and the natural world through design approaches so sympathetic and well integrated with its site, that buildings, furnishings, and surroundings become part of a unified, interrelated composition.
  43. Postmodern
    began as an international style

    first examples of which are generally cited as being from the 1950

    did not become a movement until the late 1970

    Portland Building
  44. Tectonics
    in architecture is defined as "the science or art of construction, both in relation to use and artistic design

    It refers not just to the "activity of making the materially requisite construction that answers certain needs, but rather to the activity that raises this construction to an art form." It is concerned with the modeling of material to bring the material into presence: from the physical into the meta-physical world
  45. Classical
    architecture which is more or less consciously derived from the principles of Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity
  46. avant-garde
  47. Cubism
    faceting of form, spatial ambiguity, transparency, and multiplicity
  48. geometric shape
    is the geometric information which remains when location, scale, orientation and reflection are removed from the description of a geometric object.[1] That is, the result of moving a shape around, enlarging it, rotating it, or reflecting it in a mirror is the same shape as the original, and not a distinct shape
  49. what are operational requirements?
    the basis for system requirements. MITRE SE Roles & Expectations: MITRE systems engineers (SEs) are expected to be able to understand the users' needs based on the operational needs assessment (i.e., what mission area capability gaps need to be addressed).

    Operational requirements are those statements that "identify the essential capabilities, associated requirements, performance measures, and the process or series of actions to be taken in effecting the results that are desired in order to address mission area deficiencies, evolving applications or threats, emerging technologies, or system cost improvements
  50. facade
    the main exterior face of a building
  51. scupper
    unnecessary rain water drain