intro to criticism and theory C lit 400
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intro to criticism and theory C lit 400
intro to criticism and theory
the main book of western criticism?
poetics - Aristotle
what does poetics mean?
the art of poetry
poetry are modes of?
mimesis to Aristotle this is the overriding concept
music is a form of imitation BC
because it is associated with poetry. also, with specific emotion (a song for war, celebration, etc)
poetry has three categories (Aristotle)
song verse poetry
rhythm language harmony
(Aristotle) Drama means?
Aristotle) How many plots does a tragedy have?
one plot, a unique plot
what is the best form of mimesis? (Aristotle)
Aristotle) Two natural causes of poetry
natural tendency to imitate, our natural instinct to receive pleasure with imitating (feel ranges of emotions) , learning.
composition, creation, dramatic mimesis of poetry
Imitation and creation (Aristotle)
for example, when children play they imitate but also improvise.
according to Aristotle, how should one compose their own plot?
By putting himself in the situation, create it himself
the law of probability
you can take pleasure in a tragedy (Aristotle)
if it is a representation you can experience the emotion and learn form it.
tragedy is what? (Aristotle)
is an imitation in the form of action.
men in action
the object of imitation is serious and complete
the medium used for the imitation is verse
imitation of an action in the form of an action
purification, to purge of emotion
of pity and fear, release emotion learn from it move on
tragedy is a? (Aristotle)
a spectacle, a play, but can produce the same effect without the spectacle.
what is the most important part of a tragedy?
what is ethos? (Aristotle)
the character of the character
what is the plot?
Muthos from myth
more about plot (Aristotle)
It means plot as a whole, FORM, not segregated, interconnected, mesh, they all support one another adding a more dramatic effect. events must follow each other in a logical way.
Aristotle believes that you should analyze poetry how?
By taking a scientific approach; similar to his approach to biology
Aristotle) defines tragedy according to what seven characteristics?
tells a full story of an appropriate length, contains rhythm and harmony,
rhythm and harmony occur in different combinations in different parts of the tragedy,
it is performed rather than narrated,
it arouses feelings of pity and fear then purges these feeling via catharsis.
We can learn from tragedy via?
because we are aware of the mimesis involved with art. We are able to experience the emotion without being scared by the real thing. Then, purge via catharsis and more on.
effect produced on the audience
only concerned with the author, the author is the center of the work
decomposes work, wants to see how it operates. A systematic approach.
probably or likely
art imitates nature
art supplements a lacking nature by imitating it.
art behaves like nature in ability to evolve.
means the universe, world, a force
(Aristotle)what two elements does a complex plot include?
peripeteia or reversal
anagnorisis or recognition
a change from ignorance to knowledge
(Aristotle) must have pathos?
pity, fear, a suffering
(Aristotle) The hero must make some type of hamartia.
error, fault, mistake
(Aristotle) true pity is only in
by the unfortunate/unjust misfortune of someone
(Aristotle) true fear is only created when?
when something bad happens a man similar to you. you can identify with the character, and experience fear for yourself.
(Aristotle) in his opinion tragedies have no ?
(Aristotle) what is the fault?
What is fate?
something that no one is responsible for
(Aristotle) is fate about morality?
what is homoion?
likeness, similarity, relate
(Aristotle) the tragedy must take action between family and friends to be
what is the central concept of classicism
imitation of nature - art imitates nature
17th century French classicism
it is all about rules, is self righteous and conformist.
les regles de l'art?
the rules of art
what was the 17th century French interpretation of Aristotle's poetics?
Classicism what it is supposed to be?
reproductive not creative, it is a copy
ut picture poesis
poetry is like painting
the internal logic of a fiction.
in general should have an effect on people - pragmatic- there should be a moral affect- one should learn from paintings etc.
the point is to instruct and delighting - pleasure - in the case of a tragedy - passion is bad in classical criticism- the instruction is moral.
background of Plotinus
porphyry took his writing and arranged them into six volumes with 9 each
everything ends with "the One" fusion with "the One" or union.
plato's theory is duelest
it separates, there is distinction.
Platonic love - Physical beauty is fake
(Plotinus) the world of imitations is
tolma from the one
(Plotinus) beauty is
the appearance of the idea.
(Plotinus) everything that is...
is one is from the same thing, the one
greek name for appearance
(Plotinus) things appear thanks to?
the light (the one)
the eye sees.. (Plotinus)
that the light that it projects by itself.
(Plotinus) The one needs objects to
reflect light so the eye can see
Plotinus) what is the experience of beauty?
when we she something beautiful. when you see an object and it is beautiful. when the eye sees something beautiful it is seeing itself and being reunited.
(Plotinus) you are in beauty means
you are in one with everything.
Plotinus) when we realize we are one with the object
we are in beauty
how are you ugly? (Plotinus)
as long as the art is made of material
it is an imperfect idealization.
Plotinus) is art better than nature?
Potinus) teche improves on nature it improves it where it is lacking.
art ideals nature how? (Plotinus)
by unifying matter
Plotinus) what is beauty?
it is the ideal form. self-recognition
(Longinus) how do we view something as ugly?
to view it with no unity
longinus) Cicero believed in three styles of rhetoric. what are they?
Grand, middle, plain
(longinus) what is the grand style?
movere)(sublime style) not to persuade, but to put someone in a state of trance.
longinus) what is the plain rhetoric style?
docre) to instruct or explain
longinus) What is the middle style?
what is the purpose of rhetoric style?
Longinus) what is the only way to measure sublime? (grand style)
the effect that is has on people. it must be strong and affect everyone- it cannot be resisted because it an overpowering superhuman force (this is referred to as the effect of the sublime.
According to Longinus the more enthusiastic you are the..?
better. This goes against platonic theory that this was a negative- that it showed no teche
Longinus) why does sublime occur?
we have admiration for things that are more divine than we are. things that are greater, larger, more magicical-thinks gods.
(Longinus) why do we need writing to reach sublime?
art is an aid to nature, it supplements nature, then fusion with phusis creates sublime.
what is the greatest way that grand art separates itself from the other two rhetoric styles (longinus)?
the passion of sublime
longinus) the great writers are born with an innate ability to write! in his opinion can it still be learned?
yes, but sublime art is preferred over techne
longinus) can you have grand without phusis?
longinus) how is his version of mimesis different?
it is imitation, but not a copy.
who was the first one to emphasize the role of the author?
Longinus) notes about the sublime...
it is a paradox, it is grand in a terrifying way.
Diderot) what were the rules of art? why do they need to be broken?
that you have to go out and experience nature to be truly inspired. (Addison)
Diderot) where did the notion of genius come form?
the private spirit that accompanies you in life from the moment of your birth. a private genie. you can have a good or bad one. you must give the genie gifts, this was the start of the birthday cake.
Diderot) genius is?
something natural, innate, they should have used the word ingenium.
Diderot) what does ingenium mean?
a natural skill, innate, the work that should have been genius
(Diderot) paradox on acting.
there are two thoeries of genius what are they?
Diderot) what is an original
someone who doesn't behave normally.
(Diderot) elitist, aristocratic, when it comes to the theory of....
Diderot) what does sensibilite mean?
to feel the senses.
(Diderot) what are his three characteristics of genius?
1) wit/spirit - the capacity to be affected by things or being(moved)
the genius is affected by everything, they are hyper receptive, absorbative, isn't just concerned with themselves= sensible
2) Can produce beauty or the sublime. The genius is innovative.
3) the capacity to relive or re-experience what has been lived before. the genius can identify with nature, his characters and others, and can connect emotionally.
Diterot) the great genius does what unconsciously?
observes, takes notes
Diderot) the genius is what?
Diderot) feels that the actors are ...?
(Diderot) It is only the bad actor that .....
identifies with his part .
Diterot) believes that a good actor is
insensible, and great at imitation
Diderot) and actor that relies on his emotions is
Diderot) A good Poet will actor must be inspired by ?
Diderot) Great actor poet can
Diderot) a great poet, actor can?
imitate emotions that are not his own.
Diderot) If you experience the emotion as your own you cannot...?
Diderot) Example Harrison ford - Dustin Hoffman
you must become nothing to become everything.
Diderot) the artist is a liar?
Diderot) what is the key during performance?
absence of ones self.
art improves on nature, by extracting from it an ideal model. mimetic gift
the genius is someone who is original, create new things, invents
doesn't abide by rules or laws
sensation, what is experienced through the sense.
Burke) before the eighteenth century you only had on theory about what was attractive or pleasant
The two main categories are the sublime, and the beauty.
Burke) the beautiful
is not the same as beauty it is more subtle enjoyable
pleasant emotion of pleasure
something that is interesting and catches the eye there is something narrative about it.
Burke) before him pain was though to be
it can be aesthetic
at certain distances it can be delightful (sublime) not pain that you experience yourself
pain at a distance
Burke) think sinking ship example
you don't want to be too close to the sublime or you will be engulfed
Burke) the beauty is
attractive the main emotion is pleasure
it is a social emotion
think pet and sex example
why is it that we like to pet cats and not snakes. why do we think that certain animals are more beautiful than others.
Burke) the beauty should be
light smooth and elegant, pleasure
while the sublime is rugged and dark pain
Burke) this categories are subjective
the beautiful is not a characteristic of the item itself
it is purely the sensation
what is Burke's aim?
is to establish an aesthetic system on these emotions. He wants to leak these emotion to bodily states
he is not trying to define beauty
names for emotions not things
this is what is new about the eighteenth century subjective not objective
meaning they vary from one subject to another
kant) how is criticism possible in the era of aesthetics
we should be concerned with the effect of that item on oneself.
kant critique of judgement
mimesis Katharis enthusiasm know main four or five terms
(kant) what are the three faculties of the mind
gunderstanding judement reason
desire =mean will
the feeling of pleasure and displeasure
Kant) a priori
something that is not, , something that comes before the senses, you are born with them
kant comes after Hume
Kant) a posteriori
the comes after the sense
what is kant's first critique?
of pure reason
Kant) we can only understand things as phenomenon.
things that are, space time, etc.
Kant) what is the judgment of taste?
it is aesthetical = it has to do with the senses
it refers to the pleasure and it is purely subjective
has nothing to do with good or bad holds no moral grounds
Kant) the practical reason
is Kant's second critique
Kant) a cognitive judgment ...
can be true or false
Kant) determinate judgment
a judgment that starts with an object and then can apply it
Kant) aesthetic judgment
start with an experience then universalize it into a concept
Kant) how can there be a standard of taste?
there can be no universal criterion. too subjective
Kant) man of taste?
the two kinds of pleasures or tastes have been confused.
the man of taste can object (think wine example) the taste of sense
Kant) what is his argument?
people should not universalize their judgments of taste.
So why do they do this?
Kant) this might well be Hume's prejudices
Kant) there are two aesthetics
the beautiful and the sublime that are each divided into four sub categories
Kant) the beautiful
the object of a dis interested satisfaction
satisfaction that is not dependent of the existence of the object.
he likes hamburgers so he is interested in the existence of hamburgers in the world
doesn't care about the actual object in the painting just the feeling.
Kant) the judgment of take is not a cognitive judgment and it is not an ethical judgment
Kant) the Beautiful
something that pleases universally without proving a concept
(Kant) determining concepts
start with a concept
Kant) The beauty
is an a conception experience
shouldn't generalize but we do because we are compelled to we have a common sense.
it is an assumption not something that could be demonstrated or proved.
not conceptual a-conceptual
Kant) the beautiful deprived from the third moment
free beauty & dependent beauty
Kant) dependent beauty
experience of the beautiful and the beauty cannot be separated from a subjective element.
think bridge example
brings up mimetic
Kant) free beauty
free of any subjective concept= a-conceptual
without any purpose
unknown reason for beauty for kant is the same as cat or dog pet example.
Kant) providence we and the world belong together
formalizing systematizing eighteen century philosophy
effect produced on the audience
decomposes work, want to see how it functions