intro to criticism and theory C lit 400

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intro to criticism and theory C lit 400
2015-02-12 12:30:59
criticism theory

intro to criticism and theory
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  1. the main book of western criticism?
    poetics - Aristotle
  2. what does poetics mean?
    the art of poetry
  3. poetry are modes of?
    mimesis to Aristotle this is the overriding concept
  4. music is a form of imitation BC
    because it is associated with poetry. also, with specific emotion (a song for war, celebration, etc)
  5. poetry has three categories (Aristotle)
    medium, manner,
  6. mimesis (Aristotle)
    • Mimesis
    • voice                                           colors/shapes
    • song                    verse poetry

    rhythm                language             harmony
  7. (Aristotle) Drama means?
  8. Aristotle) How many plots does a tragedy have?
    one plot, a unique plot
  9. what is the best form of mimesis? (Aristotle)
    dramatic mimesis
  10. Aristotle) Two natural causes of poetry
    natural tendency to imitate, our natural instinct to receive pleasure with imitating (feel ranges of emotions) , learning.
  11. Aristotle) poiesis
    composition, creation, dramatic mimesis of poetry
  12. Imitation and creation (Aristotle)
    for example, when children play they imitate but also improvise.
  13. according to Aristotle, how should one compose their own plot?
    By putting himself in the situation, create it himself
  14. eikon
    the law of probability
  15. you can take pleasure in a tragedy (Aristotle)
    if it is a representation you can experience the emotion and learn form it.
  16. tragedy is what? (Aristotle)
    is an imitation in the form of action.

    men in action

    the object of imitation is serious and complete

    the medium used for the imitation is verse

    imitation of an action in the form of an action
  17. katharsis (Aristotle)
    purification, to purge of emotion

    of pity and fear, release emotion learn from it move on
  18. tragedy is a? (Aristotle)
    a spectacle, a play, but can produce the same effect without the spectacle.
  19. what is the most important part of a tragedy?
    the plot
  20. what is ethos? (Aristotle)
    the character of the character
  21. what is the plot?
    Muthos from myth
  22. more about plot (Aristotle)
    It means plot as a whole, FORM, not segregated, interconnected, mesh, they all support one another adding a more dramatic effect.  events must follow each other in a logical way.
  23. Aristotle believes that you should analyze poetry how?
    By taking a scientific approach; similar to his approach to biology
  24. Aristotle) defines tragedy according to what seven characteristics?
    • mimetic,
    • serious,
    • tells a full story of an appropriate length, contains rhythm and harmony,
    • rhythm and harmony occur in different combinations in different parts of the tragedy,
    • it is performed rather than narrated,
    • it arouses feelings of pity and fear then purges these feeling via catharsis.
  25. Aristotle

    We can learn from tragedy via?
    because we are aware of the mimesis involved with art. We are able to experience the emotion without being scared by the real thing. Then, purge via catharsis and more on.
  26. pragmatic
    effect produced on the audience
  27. expressiveness
    only concerned with the author, the author is the center of the work
  28. analist
    decomposes work, wants to see how it operates. A systematic approach.
  29. eikos (aristotole)
    probably or likely
  30. (Aristotle) teche/phusis
    art imitates nature

    art supplements a lacking nature by imitating it.

    art behaves like nature in ability to evolve.
  31. (phusis) Aristotle
    means the universe, world, a force
  32. (Aristotle)what two elements does a complex plot include?
    peripeteia or reversal

    anagnorisis or recognition

    a change from ignorance to knowledge
  33. (Aristotle) must have pathos?
    pity, fear, a suffering
  34. (Aristotle) The hero must make some type of hamartia.
    error, fault, mistake
  35. (Aristotle) true pity is only in
    by the unfortunate/unjust misfortune of someone
  36. (Aristotle) true fear is only created when?
    when something bad happens a man similar to you. you can identify with the character, and experience fear for yourself.
  37. (Aristotle) in his opinion tragedies have no ?
    moral implications
  38. (Aristotle) what is the fault?
  39. What is fate?
    something that no one is responsible for
  40. (Aristotle) is fate about morality?
  41. what is homoion?
    likeness, similarity, relate
  42. (Aristotle) the tragedy must take action between family and friends to be
    most effective.
  43. what is the central concept of classicism
    imitation of nature - art imitates nature
  44. 17th century French classicism
    it is all about rules, is self righteous and conformist.
  45. what is les regles de l'art?
    the rules of art
  46. what was the 17th century French interpretation of Aristotle's poetics?
  47. Classicism what it is supposed to be?
    reproductive not creative, it is a copy
  48. ut picture poesis
    poetry is like painting
  49. classicalism ignores?
    the internal logic of a fiction.
  50. les utilites
    in general should have an effect on people - pragmatic- there should be a moral affect- one should learn from paintings etc.
  51. Classicism
    the point is to instruct and delighting - pleasure - in the case of a tragedy - passion is bad in classical criticism- the instruction is moral.
  52. background of Plotinus
    porphyry took his writing and arranged them into six volumes with 9 each
  53. Plotinus
    everything ends with "the One" fusion with "the One" or union.
  54. plato's theory is duelest
    it separates, there is distinction.
  55. Platonic love - Physical beauty is fake
  56. (Plotinus) the world of imitations is
    tolma from the one
  57. (Plotinus) beauty is
    the appearance of the idea.
  58. (Plotinus) everything that is...
    is one is from the same thing, the one
  59. phainonomenon
    greek name for appearance
  60. phos
  61. (Plotinus) things appear thanks to?
    the light (the one)
  62. the eye sees.. (Plotinus)
    that the light that it projects by itself.
  63. (Plotinus) The one needs objects to
    reflect light so the eye can see
  64. Plotinus) what is the experience of beauty?
    when we she something beautiful. when you see an object and it is beautiful. when the eye sees something beautiful it is seeing itself and being reunited.
  65. (Plotinus) you are in beauty means
    you are in one with everything.
  66. Plotinus) when we realize we are one with the object
    we are in beauty
  67. how are you ugly? (Plotinus)
    self ignorance.
  68. as long as the art is made of material
    it is an imperfect idealization.
  69. Plotinus) is art better than nature?
  70. Potinus) teche improves on nature it improves it where it is lacking.
  71. art ideals nature how? (Plotinus)
    by unifying matter
  72. Plotinus) what is beauty?
    it is the ideal form. self-recognition
  73. (Longinus) how do we view something as ugly?
    to view it with no unity
  74. longinus) Cicero believed in three styles of rhetoric. what are they?
    Grand, middle, plain
  75. (longinus) what is the grand style?
    movere)(sublime style) not to persuade, but to put someone in a state of trance.
  76. longinus) what is the plain rhetoric style?
    docre) to instruct or explain
  77. longinus) What is the middle style?
  78. what is the purpose of rhetoric style?
  79. Longinus) what is the only way to measure sublime? (grand style)
    the effect that is has on people. it must be strong and affect everyone- it cannot be resisted because it an overpowering superhuman force (this is referred to as the effect of the sublime.
  80. According to Longinus the more enthusiastic you are the..?
    better. This goes against platonic theory that this was a negative- that it showed no teche
  81. Longinus) why does sublime occur?
    we have admiration for things that are more divine than we are. things that are greater, larger, more magicical-thinks gods.
  82. (Longinus) why do we need writing to reach sublime?
    art is an aid to nature, it supplements nature, then fusion with phusis creates sublime.
  83. what is the greatest way that grand art separates itself from the other two rhetoric styles (longinus)?
    the passion of sublime
  84. longinus) the great writers are born with an innate ability to write! in his opinion can it still be learned?
    yes, but sublime art is preferred over techne
  85. longinus) can you have grand without phusis?
  86. longinus) how is his version of mimesis different?
    it is imitation, but not a copy.
  87. who was the first one to emphasize the role of the author?
  88. robortello
  89. Longinus) notes about the sublime...
    it is a paradox, it is grand in a terrifying way.
  90. Diderot) what were the rules of art? why do they need to be broken?
    that you have to go out and experience nature to be truly inspired. (Addison)
  91. Diderot) where did the notion of genius come form?
    the private spirit that accompanies you in life from the moment of your birth. a private genie. you can have a good or bad one. you must give the genie gifts, this was the start of the birthday cake.
  92. Diderot) genius is?
    something natural, innate, they should have used the word ingenium.
  93. Diderot) what does ingenium mean?
    a natural skill, innate, the work that should have been genius
  94. (Diderot) paradox on acting.

    there are two thoeries of genius what are they?
  95. Diderot) what is an original
    someone who doesn't behave normally.
  96. (Diderot) elitist, aristocratic, when it comes to the theory of....
  97. Diderot) what does sensibilite mean?
    to feel the senses.
  98. (Diderot) what are his three characteristics of genius?
    • 1) wit/spirit - the capacity to be affected by things or being(moved)
    • the genius is affected by everything, they are hyper receptive, absorbative, isn't just concerned with themselves= sensible

    2) Can produce beauty or the sublime. The genius is innovative.

    3) the capacity to relive or re-experience what has been lived before. the genius can identify with nature, his characters and others, and can connect emotionally.
  99. Diterot) the great genius does what unconsciously?
    observes, takes notes
  100. Diderot) the genius is what?
    a spectator
  101. Diderot) feels that the actors are ...?
  102. (Diderot) It is only the bad actor that .....
    identifies with his part .
  103. Diterot) believes that a good actor is
    insensible, and great at imitation
  104. Diderot) and actor that relies on his emotions is
    inconsistent, uneven.
  105. Diderot) A good Poet will actor must be inspired by ?
  106. Diderot) Great actor poet can
  107. Diderot) a great poet, actor can?
    imitate emotions that are not his own.
  108. Diderot) If you experience the emotion as your own you cannot...?
  109. Diderot) Example Harrison ford - Dustin Hoffman
    you must become nothing to become everything.
  110. Diderot) the artist is a liar?
  111. Diderot) what is the key during performance?
    absence of ones self.
  112. Diderot
    art improves on nature, by extracting from it an ideal model. mimetic gift
  113. Burke)
    the genius is someone who is original, create new things, invents
  114. Burke) genius
    doesn't abide by rules or laws
  115. Burke)
  116. aisthesis
    sensation, what is experienced through the sense.
  117. burke) aesthetics
  118. Burke) before the eighteenth century you only had on theory about what was attractive or pleasant
    The two main categories are the sublime, and the beauty.
  119. Burke) the beautiful
    is not the same as beauty it is more subtle enjoyable

    pleasant emotion of pleasure
  120. Burke) picturesque
    something that is interesting and catches the eye there is something narrative about it.
  121. Burke) before him pain was though to be
    ugly unpleasant

    it can be aesthetic

    at certain distances it can be delightful (sublime) not pain that you experience yourself

    pain at a distance
  122. Burke) think sinking ship example
    you don't want to be too close to the sublime or you will be engulfed
  123. Burke) the beauty is
    attractive the main emotion is pleasure

    it is a social emotion

    think pet and sex example

    why is it that we like to pet cats and not snakes. why do we think that certain animals are more beautiful than others.
  124. Burke) the beauty should be
    light smooth and elegant, pleasure

    while the sublime is rugged and dark pain
  125. Burke) this categories are subjective
    the beautiful is not a characteristic of the item itself

    it is purely the sensation
  126. what is Burke's aim?
    is to establish an aesthetic system on these emotions. He wants to leak these emotion to bodily states

    he is not trying to define beauty

    names for emotions not things

    this is what is new about the eighteenth century subjective not objective

    meaning they vary from one subject to another
  127. kant) how is criticism possible in the era of aesthetics
    we should be concerned with the effect of that item on oneself.
  128. kant critique of judgement

    mimesis Katharis enthusiasm know main four or five terms
  129. (kant) what are the three faculties of the mind
    gunderstanding judement reason

    desire =mean will

    the feeling of pleasure and displeasure
  130. Kant)  a priori
    something that is not, , something that comes before the senses, you are born with them

    rationalist theory 

    kant comes after Hume
  131. Kant) a posteriori
    the comes after the sense
  132. what is kant's first critique?
    of pure reason
  133. Kant) we can only understand things as phenomenon.
    things that are, space time, etc.

    God= noumenon
  134. Kant) what is the judgment of taste?
    it is aesthetical = it has to do with the senses

    it refers to the pleasure and it is purely subjective

    has nothing to do with good or bad holds no moral grounds
  135. Kant) the practical reason
    is Kant's second critique
  136. Kant) a cognitive judgment ...
    can be true or false
  137. Kant) determinate judgment
    a judgment that starts with an object and then can apply it
  138. Kant) aesthetic judgment
    start with an experience then universalize it into a concept
  139. Kant) how can there be a standard of taste?
    there can be no universal criterion. too subjective
  140. Kant) man of taste?
    the two kinds of pleasures or tastes have been confused.

    the man of taste can object (think wine example) the taste of sense
  141. Kant) what is his argument?
    people should not universalize their judgments of taste.


    So why do they do this?
  142. Kant) this might well be Hume's prejudices
  143. Kant) there are two aesthetics
    the beautiful and the sublime that are each divided into four sub categories
  144. Kant) the beautiful
    the object of a dis interested satisfaction

    satisfaction that is not dependent of the existence of the object.

    = interest

    he likes hamburgers so he is interested in the existence of hamburgers in the world

    doesn't care about the actual object in the painting just the feeling.


    contemplative pleasure
  145. Kant) the judgment of take is not a cognitive judgment and it is not an ethical judgment
  146. Kant) the Beautiful
    something that pleases universally without proving a concept
  147. (Kant) determining concepts
    start with a concept
  148. Kant) The beauty
    is an a conception experience

    shouldn't generalize but we do because we are compelled to we have a common sense.

    it is an assumption not something that could be demonstrated or proved.

    not conceptual a-conceptual
  149. Kant) the beautiful deprived from the third moment
    free beauty & dependent beauty
  150. Kant) dependent beauty
    experience of the beautiful and the beauty cannot be separated from a subjective element.

    think bridge example

    brings up mimetic
  151. Kant) free beauty
    free of any subjective concept= a-conceptual

    • abstract
    • pure music

    without any purpose
  152. unknown reason for beauty for kant is the same as cat or dog pet example.
  153. Kant) providence we and the world belong together
  154. Kant
    formalizing systematizing eighteen century philosophy
  155. pragmatic
    effect produced on the audience
  156. analist
    decomposes work, want to see how it functions