Judicial Decisions or Case Law
Case Law: Previously heard cases that decisions interpret the recant constitutional, legislative, and regulatory laws.
Decision or Opinion: Judges write their decision or opinion setting out reasons.
The decision or opinion now become precedents.
Citation: How to find previous cases in their "reporters".
Stare decisis: is the doctrine of prior precedents. "let the prior decision stand".
Holding: the precise legal response in an opinion by an appellate court on an issue of law raised on appeal.
Dicta: Statements made in a judicial opinion that are not essential to the decision of the case.
Constitutional relativity: the courts should understand the constitution relative to the times in which they interpret it.
Originalism: Stands for the idea that courts should interpret the Constitution only according to the intentions of those who wrote it.
Conflicts of law: Rules of law the courts uses to determine that substantive law applies when there is an inconsistency between laws of different states or countries.