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The major intellectual forerunners of the Enlightenment included:
Newton and Locke
Locke believed that human beings entered the world a "tabula rasa or:
Many philosphes believed in a "rational" version of religion known as:
David Hume doubted the existence of:
Moses Mendelsohn argued for:
French economic reformers were kown as:
"The Social Contract" is one of the best known works of:
Rousseau believed that men and women:
should inhabit seperate spheres
Mary Wollstonecraft believed that women were:
victims of the tyranny of men
Rococo architecture and decoration originated in:
early eighteennth-century France
The popularity of travel to Rome contributed to the rise of:
Most philosophes favored:
Monarchs associated with tenlightened absolutism include all of the following except:
Beneficiaries of the 1772 partition of Poland included:
Austria, Prussia, and Russia
The Philosophes drew the bulk of their readership from the:
prosperous commercial and professional urban classes
Voltaire's exile to England convinced him that:
English government and society ahd much to admire
Most philospohes sought the:
reform of monarchy
The physiocrats believed :
the primary role of the government was to protect private property rights
The philosophes were successful in persuading the emerging public sphere of the importance of rationalism and scientific inquiry. What were the formats through which such ideas were disseminated?
The philosophes were successful in persuading the emerging public sphere of the importance of rationalism and scientific inquiry because the emergence of a print culture, through which the ideas of the philosophes were disseminated. In the rise of the print culture, books, journals, newspapers, and pamphlets had achieved a status of their own by letting the ideas of philosophes spread. During the eighteenth century, the volume of printed material-books, journals, magazines, and newspapers- increased sharply throughout Europe, notably in Britain. One of the driving forces behind this expansion of printed material was the increase in literacy that occurred across Europe. A growing concern with everyday life and material concerns accompanied this expansion of printed forms. Philosophes used these expanding forms of print to spread their ideas across Europe and even into the New World.
Why did the philosophes consider organized religion to be their greatest enemy? Discuss the basic tenets of Deism, and how Deism avoided the problems a philosophe would see in traditional religions.
The philosophes attitude toward organized religion can be summed up by Voltaire’s cry, “Crush the Infamous Thing.” The critical philosophes complained that both established and non-established Christian churches hindered the pursuit of a rational life and the scientific study of humanity and nature. The philosophes, although critical of many religious institutions and frequently anticlerical, did not oppose all religion. The philosophes sought a religion without fanaticism and intolerance, a religious life that would largely substitute human reason for the authority of the Churches. Most of them believed the life of religion and of reason could be combined, giving rise to a set of ideas known as deism. Deism promoted religion as a natural and rational, rather than supernatural and mystical, phenomenon. Also, Deists hoped that wide acceptance of their faith would end rivalry among various Christian sects and with religious fanaticism, conflict, and persecution.
How were women viewed during the Enlightenment? What roles did they play in intellectual society?
Despite women’s help to promote the Enlightenment, the philosophes were on the whole not strong feminists. Many urged better and broader education for women. They criticized the education women did receive as overly religious, and they tended to reject ascetic views of sexual relations. In general, however, they displayed traditional views toward women and advocated no radical changes in their social condition. Montesquieu, for example, in general, believed that the status of women in a society was the result of climate, the political regime, culture, and women’s physiology. Montesquieu, embodying the views of the Enlightenment, did not believe women were naturally inferior to men; however, they should remain at their same social level.
What is meant by the term Enlightened Absolutism? Discuss one of the Enlightened monarchs mentioned in this chapter. How did the monarch adhere to the principles of the Enlightenment? What prevented this monarch from instituting a more truly enlightened form of government?
Historians use the term enlightened absolutism of the political ideas of monarchical government in which the central absolutist administration was strengthened and rationalized at the cost of other, lesser centers of political power, such as the aristocracy, the church, and the parliaments or diets that had survived from the Middle Ages. Frederick the Great of Prussia embodied enlightened absolutism. Drawing upon the accomplishments of his Hohenzollern forebears, he forged a state that commanded the loyalty of the military, the junker nobility, the Lutheran clergy, a growing bureaucracy recruited from an educated class, and university professors. Ultimately Frederick the Great’s overtaxation of the peasants, which reflected his desire to protect the nobility, created despair within the Prussian peasants who looked to other means, such as revolt, to protect their natural rights.
Pick one of the philosophes from this chapter and discuss their contributions to the Enlightenment period.
By far the most influential of the philosophes was Francois-Marie Arouet, known to posterity by his pen name Voltaire. During the 1720s, Voltaire had offended first the French monarch and certain nobles by his politically and socially irreverent poetry and plays. In 1733, Voltaire published the “Letters on the English,” which praised the virtues of England, especially their religious liberty. In 1759, Voltaire replied to optimistics views of life and nature in his work Candide, his still widely read satire attacking war, religious persecution, and what he considered unwarranted optimism about the human condition. Voltaire became a major voice attacking religious persecution and advocating toleration, He died in 1778 in Paris after a triumphal return to that city, which he had not seen for decades since his exile.
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