1.1 Brain Anatomy

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efrain12
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293120
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1.1 Brain Anatomy
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2015-01-16 13:17:13
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AnP II
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Brain anatomy
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  1. 3 things that consist of PNS
    -cranial nerves

    -spinal nerves

    -autonomic NS components
  2. 2 parts to the CNS
    -brain

    -spinal cord
  3. CNS function
    Integrates and controls the entire nervous system
  4. What is the input that the CNS receives called?
    Sensory or afferent
  5. Information that CNS gives out
    -motor or efferent
  6. Positional terminology for the brain) towards the nose
    rostral
  7. Positional terminology for the brain) towards the back
    dorsal
  8. Positional terminology for the brain) towards the tail
    Caudal
  9. Positional terminology for the brain) towards the belly
    ventral
  10. 4 parts of the brain
    -cerebrum

    -diencephalon

    -cerebellum

    -brainstem
  11. Cerebrum) total brain mass it makes up?
    80% total brain mass
  12. Cerebrum) do both sides of the cerebrum function the same?
    No, they look the same but differ in function slightly
  13. 4 functions of the cerebrum
    -voluntary motor function

    -somatic and visceral sensory perception

    -special sensory functions

    -language and learning
  14. What are the gyri ?
    Hills on the cerebrum
  15. What are the sulci
    ?
    Valleys on the cerebrum
  16. What are the gyri and sulci called collectively?
    Convolutions
  17. According to L Mahadevan, patterns of folding on the brain are a function of...
    -cortical expansion

    -cortical thickness relative to brain size


    *as cortex expands, if it stays attached to the white matter below, it will physically buckle
  18. Where can grey matter be found?
    External covering of the cerebrum
  19. Brief description of cerebral cortex (2)
    -covers the gyri

    -composed of unmyelinated structures
  20. 2 examples of un-myelinated structures
    -neuronal cell bodies

    -glial cells
  21. What is the cerebral cortex like?
    Bark on a tree.
  22. What is white matter?
    Internal brain nerve fibers
  23. White matter) where can commissural fibers be found?
    Between hemispheres
  24. White matter) where are association fibers found?
    Between lobes and gyri
  25. White matter) where are projection fibers found? (3)
    -between cortex

    -lower brain areas

    -spinal cord
  26. Where are pyramidal cell bodies located?
    • In cerebral cortex
    • *gray matter
  27. Histology slide) what do projection fibers eventually turn into?
    • Pyramidal tract
    • *send somatic motor signals down this tract
  28. What are the 4 cerebral lobes?
    -frontal lobe

    -parietal lobe

    -occipital lobe

    -temporal lobe
  29. Which the thought to be the fifth lobe?
    Limbic lobe
  30. What is a fissure?
    Deep sulcus
  31. Sulci and 4 lobes
    Sulci divides each hemisphere into 4 lobes
  32. What does the central sulcus divide?
    Frontal & parental lobe
  33. What does the Pareto-occipital sulcus divides?
    Parietal and occipital lobes
  34. Where can Parieto-occipital sulcus be seen?
    Medially
  35. What does the longitudinal fissure?
    Separates left and right hemispheres
  36. What is the precentral gyrus? (2)
    -sits rostral to the central sulcus

    -primary motor cortex
  37. What is postcentral gyrus ? (2)
    -Primary somato sensory cortex

    -sits caudal to the central sulcus
  38. Sensation example ) Where does sensation originate?
    Peripheral receptor
  39. Sensation example ) where is it realized?
    Post-central gyrus
  40. Motor example) where does volitional movement originate ?
    precentral gyrus
  41. Motor example) where is the signal realized?>
    Neuromuscular junction
  42. What is the paracentral lobule?
    • Continuation of pre and post central gyri on medial side of brain
    • *both coupled onto the medial side view
  43. What does the diencephalon form?
    Forms the central core of the cerebrum
  44. What are the 4 parts of the diencephalon?
    -thalamus

    -epithalamus

    -subthalamus

    -hypothalamus
  45. Diencephalon) how is the pituitary gland connected to the hypothalamus?
    By infundibulum
  46. What is pineal body/gland a part of?
    epithalamus
  47. What does the brainstem connect?
    Cerebrum to the spinal cord
  48. What are the 3 parts of the brainstem?
    -midbrain

    -pons

    -medulla oblongata
  49. Where is the cerebellum located?
    Located causal and inferior to the cerebrum
  50. What are the 3 layers of the cerebellum?
    • -molecular layer
    • *top most layer, most pink, most bulky

    • -perkinge layer
    • *thin layer has circles

    • -granular layer
    • *most bottom, little granules
  51. Meninges ) into which 2 layers does the dura mater split into?
    • -periosteal
    • *top

    -meningeal
  52. What are the 3 meninges?
    -dura mater

    -arachnoid mater

    -pita mater
  53. What is septa? And which are they ? (1+3)
    Meningeal layer of dura forms 3 separations

    -falx cerebri

    -falx cerebelli

    -tentorium cerebelli
  54. What's the falx cerebri?
    • Between cerebral hemispheres
    • *in longitudinal fissures
  55. dural septa) what is tentorium cerebelli?
    • Separates cerebrum from cerebellum
    • *covers the cerebellum like a tent
  56. dural septa) what is falx cerebelli?
    Separates left/right cerebellum hemispheres
  57. How do dural sinuses made?
    2 layers of dura split to form large veins in regions of brain such as superior sagittal sinus
  58. What does the subarachnoid space contain?
    CSF cerebrospinal fluid
  59. Between which 2 structures does is the subarachnoid space located?
    Arachnoid and pia mater
  60. What are the 2 meningeal spaces?
    subdural

    Subarachnoid
  61. How many ventricles do we have?
    • 4
    • *2 lateral, 3rd, 4th
  62. Lateral ventricles leak their CSF to the 3rd ventricle using
    Inter-ventricular foremen
  63. 3rd ventricle leaks CSF to 4th ventricle using
    Cerebral aqueduct
  64. Where is the septum pellucidum located?
    Between lateral ventricles
  65. What is choroid plexus?
    • Single layer ependymal cells lining a blood capillary
    • *forms a blood brain barrier
  66. By what is the CSF produced by? And within where?
    Choroid plexus within all ventricles
  67. CSF flow (3)
    -Flows from lateral to 3rd by inter-ventricular foremen then 3rd to 4th by cerebral aqueduct


    -It exits 4th ventricle to subarachnoid space. It then travels all over this space surrounding and cushioning the brain and spinal cord

    -exits subarachnoid space into dural sinuses (superior sagittal sinus) via arachnoid villi
  68. How often is CSF replaced?
    3-4 times per day
  69. What is hydrocephalus?
    Excessive accumulation of CSF in the brain

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