This practice test covers material from Lectures 1-3
The highest level of organization in the human body among the options listed is
Choose the arrangement of items 1-5 from most to least complex:
(3) chemical or molecular
(5) organ system
A) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
B) 5, 4, 3, 2, 1
C) 1, 5, 2, 4, 3
D) 5, 3, 2, 4, 1
E) 2, 4, 1, 5, 3
Support, protect, mineral storage, and blood cell formation are functions of the:
A) skeletal system
B) cardiovascular system
C) immune system
D) reproductive system
E) excretory system
Directing immediate responses to stimuli, usually by coordinating the activities of other organ systems is the function of the:
A) integumentary system
B) endocrine system
C) urinary system
D) nervous system
E) reproductive system
In anatomical position, a person stands with the legs together and the feet flat
on the floor. Additionally, the...
A) hands are raised above the head
B) hands are facing posteriorly
C) the hands are hanging naturally at the persons sides
D) hands are at the sides, and the palms face anteriorly
E) hands are facing laterally
A frontal section is in a plane that:
A) is at right angles to the longitudinal axis
B) divides the body into left and right sections
C) divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
D) divides the body into superior and inferior sections
E) passes through the longitudinal midline of the body
Which of the following pairs consists of anatomical equivalents?
A) distal, coronal
B) proximal, lateral
C) cranial, caudal
D) cephalic, posterior
E) anterior, ventral
Why does the term caudal differ in meaning in humans versus four-legged
A) All human anatomical terms are different from those used for quadrupeds
B) Humans' upright stance makes caudal the same as inferior
C) Caudal is a relative term, meaning posterior in humans
D) It doesn't; the meaning is the same in both
E) None of the answers are correct
Which of the following includes only structures enclosed within the
A) lungs, esophagus, heart
B) heart, trachea, lungs
C) esophagus, trachea, thymus
D) pharynx, thymus, major vessels, left lung
E) brain, spinal cord
Which if the following options most accurately describes the relative positions of the heart and the large intestines?
A) the heart is superior to the large intestines
B) the heart is proximal to the large intestines
C) the large intestines are distal to the heart
D) the large intestines are inferior to the heart
E) A & C
F) A & D
A transverse section at the level of the nipples would pass through which body
A) pleural cavities
B) pericardial cavity
C) abdominal cavity
D) pelvic cavity
E) both A & B
F) both C & D
The hip is ________ to the knee.
Most of the digestive organs are contained
within the ________ cavity.
The ________ separates the thoracic from the
True or false:
Objects within the digestive tract are outside of the body.
TRUE. Even though we usually think of swallowed objects as immediately entering the body, they do not actually do so until they pass through the cellular membrane lining the digestive tract. This means that they have to be broken down into particles sufficiently small to cross through that membrane barrier.
Simple cuboidal and stratified columnar are what primary tissue type?
Name two structures we have discussed that are good at resisting multi-directional stresses.
Ligaments (compared with tendons)
Name two types of connective tissue that function well as filler substances and give their full categorization within the larger category of connective tissue.
Adipose tissue, loose connective tissue proper
Areolar tissue, loose connective tissue proper
reticular tissue, loose connective tissue proper
True or false:
Glands are produced by muscle tissue.
FALSE: glands are special secretory cells produced by epithelial tissue
True or False:
Elastic cartilage surrounds blood vessels.
FALSE: elastic tissue, a dense connective tissue proper, surrounds blood vessels. Elastic cartilages are located in the head and neck and are associated with structures that function through vibration.
Give and define two characteristics shared by all muscle tissues.
1) Excitable: able to respond to stimulation
2) Elastic: able to rebound to former state after deformation
3) Contractile: cells are able to shorten in response to stimulation
4) Extensible: cells are able to stretch by resting state length
What are the types of muscle tissue present in the body?
A) Skeletal muscle tissue
B) cardiac muscle tissue
C) Smooth muscle tissue
What are the types of dense connective tissue proper found in the body?
B) Elastic tissue
Which fiber type is dominant in tendons and why?
Collagen fibers are dominant. Tendons function to connect muscles to bones. Therefore they have to be both strong and resistent to tensile forces (i.e., stretching forces). Collagen fibers are strong, flexible, and can be stretched a good deal without tearing. Therefore, in order to function properly, tendons are composed primarily of collagen fibers.
Where would you expect to find hyaline cartilage?
In lots of places! It is the most abundant type of cartilage present in the human body. It is commonly found lining the articular surfaces of joints, in cartilaginous structures such as the nose and septum, and as juvenile models of as-of-yet uncalcified bones.
What are the two primary divisions of the nervous system and what is each division responsible for?
The central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The CNS is the integration, processing and decision-makin center of the body; makes sense of information gathered from the nerves of the PNS about how the body is doing and decides how to respond to the information. The PNS relays information (instructions and sensory information) between the body and the brain. It is the highway that connects the CNS to the rest of the body.