USMLE8

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rere_girl4ever
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293148
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USMLE8
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2015-01-17 19:43:41
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USMLE8
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  1. What is the function of major basic protein?
    Released by eosinophils to kill helminths. Also contribute to bronchial epithelial damage in atopic asthma.
  2. What so basophils contain in their granules?
    • Heparin (anticoagulant)
    • Histamine (vasodilator)
    • Leukotreines
  3. What type of cells are found in the bronchi?
    • 1. Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium
    • 2. Goblet cells
    • 3. Submucosal mucoserous glands
    • 4. Cartilage
  4. Where is cartilage found in the respiratory airway?
    • Trachea + Bronchi
    • Goblet cells and cartilage extend to end of bronchi
  5. Where are goblet cells found in the respiratory airway?
    • Trachea + Bronchi
    • Goblet cells and cartilage extend to the end of bronchi
  6. What type of cells are found in the bronchioles?
    • 1. Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
    • 2. Smooth muscle
  7. What type of cells are found in the terminal/ respiratory bronchioles?
    • 1. Ciliated simple cuboidal cells
    • 2. Smooth muscle
  8. Where is pseudostratified ciliated columnar cells found in the respiratory airway?
    • Trachea + Bronchi + Bronchioles
    • They extend to the beginning of the terminal bronchioles, then transition to cuboidal cells
  9. Where is smooth muscle found in the airway?
    Trachea + Bronchi + Bronchioles + Terminal bronchioles
  10. Describe the presentation of mononucleosis.
    • Fever
    • Hepatospenomegaly
    • Pharyngitis
    • Posterior cervical lymphadenopathy
    • Caused by EBV (+Monospot)¬†and CMV
  11. What is the pathology of this?
    • Mononucleosis
    • Posterior cervical lymphadenopathy, fever, pharyngitis, hepatosplenomegaly
  12. What is seen on this peripheral blood smear?
    • Atypical lymphocytes- reactive cytotoxic T cells (CD8)
    • Mononucleosis- EBV
  13. This cell surface marker serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharides.
    CD14- on macrophages.
  14. What is the duration of a Brief psychotic disorder?
    Less than a month
  15. What is the duration of Schizophreniform disorder?
    1-6 months
  16. What is the duration of Schizoaffective disorder?
    lasting> 2 weeks
  17. What is the duration of Schizophrenia?
    More than 6 months.
  18. What is a delusional disorder?
    Unique, false beliefs about oneself or others that persist despite the facts.
  19. What gives elastin its ability to recoil?
    • Desmosine crosslinking involving lysine.
    • The crosslinking is accomplised by the action of lysl hydroxylase.
  20. What branch of the brachial plexus is the ulnar nerve derived from?
    C8-T1
  21. Describe the sensory innervation of the ulnar nerve.
    • Sensory innervation to the fifth digit and the medial half of the fourth digit (palmar and dorsal surfaces)
  22. Fracture of the medial epicondyle of the humerus may cause an injury to which nerve?
    Ulnar nerve
  23. A fractured hook of hamate may cause an injury to which nerve?
    Ulnar nerve
  24. What are the causes of injury to the ulnar nerve?
    • Fracutre of medial epicondyle of humerus
    • Fracure of hook of hamate
    • Gyuon's canal
  25. Hypothenar emnience is affected in which nerve injury?
    • Ulnar nerve
  26. Which nerve is affected in carpal tunnel syndrome?
    • Median nerve
    • Difficulty in fine motor control of thumb.
  27. A fractured surgical neck of the humerus may cause injury to which nerve?
    • Axillary nerve
    • Fractured surgical neck of humerus
    • Anterior dislocation of humerus

  28. Anterior dislocation of the humerus may cause injury to which nerve?
    • Axillary nerve
    • Fracture of surgical neck of humerus
    • Anterior dislocation of humerus
  29. What can cause injury to the axillary nerve?
    • Fracture of surgical neck of humerus
    • Anterior dislocation of humerus
  30. Damage to this nerve causes atrophy of the deltoid muscle.
    Axillary
  31. Describe the presentation due to injurt to the axillary nerve
    • 1. Flattened deltoid
    • 2. Loss of arm abduction at shoulder
    • 3. Less of sensation over deltoid muscle and upper lateral arm
  32. What is the pathology seen below?
    ulnar claw
  33. How does the urease breath test work? In which disease is it used?
    • The patient consumes C-labeled urea and his breath is then monitored for the presence of C-labeled carbon dioxide, which would indicate the presence of H.pylori product urease in the stomach.
    • Used in DUODENAL ULCERS
  34. Why is Valporate a teratogen?
    • Inhibit maternal folate absorption
    • Neural tube defects: Spina bifida, Meningocele, Meningomyelocele
  35. Which diseases are associated with Coarctation of the aorta?
    • Turner syndrome
    • Bicuspid aortic valve
    • Aortic narrowing near insertion of ductus arteriosus
  36. Bicuspid aortic valve is associated with which heart defect?
    Coarctation of the aorta.
  37. Describe the presentation of duodenal atresia. What other disease is it associated with?
    • Bilious vomiting- usually 1st day of life
    • Proximal stomach distention (double-bubble)
    • Associated with Down Syndrome
  38. What pathology is seen below?

    • Duodenal atresia
    • Double bubble - proximal stomach dilation
  39. Failure of small bowel recanalization results in?
    Duodenal atresia
  40. What causes duodenal atresia?
    Failure of small bowel recanalization.
  41. What is the cause of death in Potters syndrome?
    Pulmonary hypoplasia
  42. What are the causes of Potters syndrome?
    • ARPKD
    • Obstructive uropathy e.g. Posterior urethral valves
    • Bilateral renal agenesis
  43. What is Ebstein anomaly and what is a predisposing factor to the disease?
    • Characterized by "atrialized right ventricle" because of a downward displacement of the tricuspid valve.
    • Associated with the use of lithium during pregnancy.
  44. In which disease(s) is rocker bottom feet seen in?
    • Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)
    • Pataus syndrome (trisomy 13)

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