1.3 Brain function

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1.3 Brain function
2015-01-18 13:32:00

Brain Function
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  1. Location of secondary areas to primary
    Adjacent to primary
  2. What do secondary areas do with information?
  3. What do primary areas do with information?
    Direct processing of primary sensory or motor information
  4. What is primary motor cortex called medially?
    Anterior paracentral gyrus
  5. What is the other name for primary motor cortex relating to central sulcus?
    precentral gyrus
  6. What are the cells of Motor cortex?
    Pyramidal cells
  7. What occurs within pyramidal cells?
    Its within these cells that the actual command for volitional movement is generated, the AP is sent down the pyramidal tract to be delivered to target skeletal muscles
  8. What are pyramidal cells?
    Cell bodies form cortex
  9. What is pyramidal tract?
    Collection of axons (fibers) of pyramidal cells
  10. What is the motor homunculus?
    • 3d representation of how it is mapped in the brain
    • *the larger the part the more surface area it covers in the cortex
  11. Motor homunculus ) around where is the upper body mapped
    • precentral gyrus
    • *towards lateral side
  12. Motor homunculus ) around where is the lower body mapped?
    • paracentral lobule
    • *towards the medial
  13. Motor homunculus ) it only depicts...
    Volitional motor initiation
  14. Pre-motor cortex) location to the motor cortex
    It sits anterior/rostral to motor cortex
  15. Pre-motor cortex) function
    Important in learned motor skills and planning movements
  16. What do brodmann numbers identify?
    • Specific areas of functionality
    • *of the brain
  17. Where are all motor areas located?
    In the frontal lobe
  18. Motor areas) In which hemisphere is Brocas area located?
    Left hemisphere
  19. Motor areas) whats brodman number for brocaarea?
    #44 & #45
  20. Main function of Broca area
    Motor for speech
  21. #44 of brodmanns numebrs
    -primary speech cortex
  22. #45 of brodmanns numbers
    Motor association area for speech
  23. What is an example of hemisphere dominance?
    Speech center and ability to form words located only in left hemisphere
  24. What occurs if there are lesions to the Boca's areas?
    • Difficulty forming speech
    • *expressive aphasia
  25. Even if there are lesions to Boca's area, what still functions (2)
    -understanding language

    -motor control of mouth
  26. Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: somato-sensory
    Anterior parietal lobe
  27. Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: visual
    Occipital lobe
  28. Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: auditory
  29. Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: olfactory (2)
    -uncut in temporal lobe

    -inferior frontal lobe
  30. Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: gustatory (2)

    -within parietal
  31. Difference between where sensation and motor places are located?
    Motor is centered in frontal lobe while sensation is spread out in cerebrum
  32. What are the 2 names for somato-sensory primary cortex
    • -post central gyrus
    • * on the lateral side

    • -posterior paracentral gyrus
    • *on the medial side
  33. Somato-sensory primary cortex) It is involved in general sense only meaning..(4)



  34. Which pathway does pain & temp go through?
    spinothalamic pathway
  35. Does somato-sensory information cross or not?
    Yes it crosses also
  36. Is there a sensory homunculus ?
    Yes, it is mapped differently than motor
  37. Position of somato-sensory association area relative to Post-central gyrus?
    It is posterior to postcentral
  38. What is the main function of somato-sensory association area?
    Integrates sensory information
  39. example of what primary and association areas do (sensory)
    Primary: allows you to feel the sensation

    Association: is the sensation pleasurable or not?
  40. Location of visual primary cortex? (2)
    -occipital lobe on either side of calcarine sulcus (calcarine sulcus only seen on medial side)
  41. What occurs in visual primary cortex?
    • Visual fields are crossed
    • *left eye realizes on right
  42. Location of visual association area
    On either side of the primary visual area
  43. In which 3 lobes is visual association area located?


  44. Examples of how visual primary and association work
    -primary decodes the actual image that retina sees

    • -association: compares image to other concepts
    • *how fast is it?
    • *is it moving towards me?
    • *is it a ball or food?
  45. Where is the auditory primary cortex located?
    Superior, posterior portion of temporal lobe
  46. Inside which sulcus is the auditory primary cortex located?
    • Lateral sulcus
    • *bilateral
    • *left + right auditory information
  47. Where is auditory association area located?
    Inferior/posterior surrounding primary area
  48. Auditory association area) Where is Wernicke's area located?
    On the dominant side of the cerebrum
  49. What is lateralization of the cerebral cortex?
    Hemisphere dominance
  50. Myth of cerebral dominance) what is the left side supposed to specialized in? (3)


    • -speech and language
    • *true for 95% of right handers and. 70% left handers
  51. Myth of cerebral dominance) what is the right side supposed to specialized in? (4)


    -spatial perception

    -artistic and musical skills
  52. Is there enough evidence for the myth of cerebral dominance?
    No there isnt
  53. Why does Wernicke aphasia occur?
    Damage to wernickes area
  54. Where is Wernicke located?
    Where temporal and parietal lobes join
  55. What is the main symptom of Wernicke's aphasia?
    • Difficulty understanding language
    • *receptive aphasia
  56. Does forming speech work fine or not when someone has Wernicke aphasia?
    Yes it still does
  57. Where is Wernicke area usually located?
    Usually in left but not all cases
  58. What process the sense of smell?
    Uncus in olfactory cortex
  59. Olfactory cortex) where is the uncus located?
    on the inferior temporal lobe
  60. How does olfactory signals reach the uncus?
    Signals are brought up to the bulb, the bulb sends it down the tract. The tract carries the AP to uncus
  61. Gustatory cortex) where is the insula located?
    Inferior part of the post central gyrus deep to temporal lobe and parietal lobe
  62. Gustatory cortex) what does the insular process?
    Taste is processed by the insula
  63. Other association areas) what are the other association areas used for?
    To analyze, recognize, and act on sensory input in the light of past experiences
  64. Other association areas) function of prefrontal cortex? (4)
    -Complex learning skills



  65. Other association areas) where is prefrontal cortex located?
    Anterior portion of frontal lobe
  66. Other association areas) function of general interpretation area?
    Integrates information for the purpose of what to interpret of what we sense
  67. Other association areas) where is the general interpretation area located? (3)


    -occipital lobes
  68. Other association areas) which 2 areas does the language area involved?
    -wernickes area

    -Brocas area
  69. In which 2 lobes in language area found also?
    -parietal and occipital lobes
  70. Other association areas) where is visceral association area located?
    Inside the lateral sulcus where insula in found
  71. Cerebral white matter is responsive for communication between...(2)
    -cerebral areas

    -cerebral cortex and lower parts of the CNS
  72. What does commissural fibers do?
    Communication between 2 hemispheres
  73. What do association fibers do?
    Communication between lobes
  74. What do projection fibers do?
    Between higher and lower areas of the CNS
  75. How does the cerebral white matter act as?
    It acts as one big communication system
  76. What does basal nuclei/ganglia do?
    Influences motor learning & function by refining the signals sent
  77. Where are the basal nuclei/ganglia located?
    Surrounds diencephalon
  78. Group of deep nuclei in the cerebrum ...(5)


    -globus pallidus

    -subthalmic nucleus

    -substantia nigra
  79. Medially, how does Caudate nucleus shapped?
    C shaped
  80. What's superior to lentiform nucleus?
    Caudate nucleus
  81. What 2 structures make up lentiform nucleus?

    -globus pallidus
  82. Function of thalamus
    Collection of sensory relay nuclei connecting subcortical regions of nervous system with cerebral cortex
  83. What is thalamus nickname?
    Gateway to the cerebral cortex
  84. What does hypothalamic regulate? (7)
    -autonomic nervous system

    -temperature regulation

    -food intake

    -water balance

    -sleep-wake cycle


    -endocrine system
  85. Why is thalamus a sensory relay system?
    It direct the signals to the appropriate destination
  86. What does epithalamus regulate? (2)
    • -sleep/wake cycle
    • *pineal gland

    • -onset of puberty
    • *by initiating development of genital glands
  87. Function of subthalamus
    Influences motor function
  88. What is subthalamus part of?
    Basal ganglia
  89. Function of pineal gland (3)
    -governs biological clock

    • -regulates sleep-wake cycle
    • *circadian rhythms

    -melatonin production
  90. What does pineal gland do in zebrafish?
    Visible photoreceptor
  91. What does the brainstem connect?
    Brain and the spinal cord
  92. What are the 3 parts of brainstem?


    -medulla oblongata
  93. Which 2 nerves originate from midbrain?
    -CN III

    -CN IV
  94. Which aqueduct runs through midbrain?
    Cerebral aqueduct
  95. midbrain) what are the superior and inferior colliculi involved in?
    Visual and auditory pathways
  96. What are the superior and infe3rior colliculi called collectively?
    corpora quadigemina
  97. Which NT does substantial nigra produce?
  98. What does degenerative substantial nigra result?
    In Parkinson
  99. Which 4 nerves originate from the pons?
    -CN V

    -CN VI

    -CN VII

    -CN VIII
  100. pons: what does pneumotaxic center do?
    Controls respiration and normal breathing patterns
  101. Pons: where is 4th ventricle located?
    Dorsal to Pons
  102. Which 4 nerves arise from medulla?
    -CN IX

    -CN X

    -CN XI

    -CN XII
  103. What occurs in distal end of medulla?
    • Pyramidal decussation
    • *crossing of motor commands
  104. Which 4 centers are located in medulla?



    -visceral control
  105. Medulla) cardiac center fucntion
    Controls heart rate
  106. Medulla) vasomotor center function
    Controls blood pressure
  107. Medulla) respiratory center function
    Interacts with penumotaxic center in pons
  108. Medulla) visceral control center function
    For abdominal pelvic organ control
  109. Where is cerebellum located?
    Dorsal to pons and medulla
  110. What are the primary functions of cerebellum?
    • -important for motor coordination
    • *error correction
    • **bulls eye example

    • -posture and Equilibrium
    • *motor tasks involving these
  111. Cerebellum communicates with which structures for posture and equilibrium? (3)
    -vestibular system

    -motor cortex

    -basal ganglia
  112. Group of structures that belong to limbic system (7)
    -cyngulate gyrus

    -septal nuclei

    -dentate gyrus

    -parahippocampal gyrus



    -olfactory system
  113. Limbic system) septal nuclei fucntion
    Reward center
  114. Limbic system) hippocampus fucntion
    Long term memory
  115. Limbic system) amygdala
    Stress center
  116. What is reticular formation?
    Diffuse nuclei scattered throughout the brain stem
  117. Functions of reticular formation (2)
    • Functions in keeping us alert and conscious
    • *reticular activating system

    • Helps dampen sensory input
    • *vision or hearing
    • *block out background noise and background vision sensory.
  118. Where does reticular formation functions in? (2)
    -function in the motor system

    -visceral motor functions