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Location of secondary areas to primary
Adjacent to primary
What do secondary areas do with information?
What do primary areas do with information?
Direct processing of primary sensory or motor information
What is primary motor cortex called medially?
Anterior paracentral gyrus
What is the other name for primary motor cortex relating to central sulcus?
What are the cells of Motor cortex?
What occurs within pyramidal cells?
Its within these cells that the actual command for volitional movement is generated, the AP is sent down the pyramidal tract to be delivered to target skeletal muscles
What are pyramidal cells?
Cell bodies form cortex
What is pyramidal tract?
Collection of axons (fibers) of pyramidal cells
What is the motor homunculus?
- 3d representation of how it is mapped in the brain
- *the larger the part the more surface area it covers in the cortex
Motor homunculus ) around where is the upper body mapped
- precentral gyrus
- *towards lateral side
Motor homunculus ) around where is the lower body mapped?
- paracentral lobule
- *towards the medial
Motor homunculus ) it only depicts...
Volitional motor initiation
Pre-motor cortex) location to the motor cortex
It sits anterior/rostral to motor cortex
Pre-motor cortex) function
Important in learned motor skills and planning movements
What do brodmann numbers identify?
- Specific areas of functionality
- *of the brain
Where are all motor areas located?
In the frontal lobe
Motor areas) In which hemisphere is Brocas area located?
Motor areas) whats brodman number for brocaarea?
#44 & #45
Main function of Broca area
Motor for speech
#44 of brodmanns numebrs
-primary speech cortex
#45 of brodmanns numbers
Motor association area for speech
What is an example of hemisphere dominance?
Speech center and ability to form words located only in left hemisphere
What occurs if there are lesions to the Boca's areas?
- Difficulty forming speech
- *expressive aphasia
Even if there are lesions to Boca's area, what still functions (2)
-motor control of mouth
Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: somato-sensory
Anterior parietal lobe
Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: visual
Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: auditory
Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: olfactory (2)
-uncut in temporal lobe
-inferior frontal lobe
Primary sensory areas) localization of function in cerebral lobes: gustatory (2)
Difference between where sensation and motor places are located?
Motor is centered in frontal lobe while sensation is spread out in cerebrum
What are the 2 names for somato-sensory primary cortex
- -post central gyrus
- * on the lateral side
- -posterior paracentral gyrus
- *on the medial side
Somato-sensory primary cortex) It is involved in general sense only meaning..(4)
Which pathway does pain & temp go through?
Does somato-sensory information cross or not?
Yes it crosses also
Is there a sensory homunculus ?
Yes, it is mapped differently than motor
Position of somato-sensory association area relative to Post-central gyrus?
It is posterior to postcentral
What is the main function of somato-sensory association area?
Integrates sensory information
example of what primary and association areas do (sensory)
Primary: allows you to feel the sensation
Association: is the sensation pleasurable or not?
Location of visual primary cortex? (2)
-occipital lobe on either side of calcarine sulcus (calcarine sulcus only seen on medial side)
What occurs in visual primary cortex?
- Visual fields are crossed
- *left eye realizes on right
Location of visual association area
On either side of the primary visual area
In which 3 lobes is visual association area located?
Examples of how visual primary and association work
-primary decodes the actual image that retina sees
- -association: compares image to other concepts
- *how fast is it?
- *is it moving towards me?
- *is it a ball or food?
Where is the auditory primary cortex located?
Superior, posterior portion of temporal lobe
Inside which sulcus is the auditory primary cortex located?
- Lateral sulcus
- *left + right auditory information
Where is auditory association area located?
Inferior/posterior surrounding primary area
Auditory association area) Where is Wernicke's area located?
On the dominant side of the cerebrum
What is lateralization of the cerebral cortex?
Myth of cerebral dominance) what is the left side supposed to specialized in? (3)
- -speech and language
- *true for 95% of right handers and. 70% left handers
Myth of cerebral dominance) what is the right side supposed to specialized in? (4)
-artistic and musical skills
Is there enough evidence for the myth of cerebral dominance?
No there isnt
Why does Wernicke aphasia occur?
Damage to wernickes area
Where is Wernicke located?
Where temporal and parietal lobes join
What is the main symptom of Wernicke's aphasia?
- Difficulty understanding language
- *receptive aphasia
Does forming speech work fine or not when someone has Wernicke aphasia?
Yes it still does
Where is Wernicke area usually located?
Usually in left but not all cases
What process the sense of smell?
Uncus in olfactory cortex
Olfactory cortex) where is the uncus located?
on the inferior temporal lobe
How does olfactory signals reach the uncus?
Signals are brought up to the bulb, the bulb sends it down the tract. The tract carries the AP to uncus
Gustatory cortex) where is the insula located?
Inferior part of the post central gyrus deep to temporal lobe and parietal lobe
Gustatory cortex) what does the insular process?
Taste is processed by the insula
Other association areas) what are the other association areas used for?
To analyze, recognize, and act on sensory input in the light of past experiences
Other association areas) function of prefrontal cortex? (4)
-Complex learning skills
Other association areas) where is prefrontal cortex located?
Anterior portion of frontal lobe
Other association areas) function of general interpretation area?
Integrates information for the purpose of what to interpret of what we sense
Other association areas) where is the general interpretation area located? (3)
Other association areas) which 2 areas does the language area involved?
In which 2 lobes in language area found also?
-parietal and occipital lobes
Other association areas) where is visceral association area located?
Inside the lateral sulcus where insula in found
Cerebral white matter is responsive for communication between...(2)
-cerebral cortex and lower parts of the CNS
What does commissural fibers do?
Communication between 2 hemispheres
What do association fibers do?
Communication between lobes
What do projection fibers do?
Between higher and lower areas of the CNS
How does the cerebral white matter act as?
It acts as one big communication system
What does basal nuclei/ganglia do?
Influences motor learning & function by refining the signals sent
Where are the basal nuclei/ganglia located?
Group of deep nuclei in the cerebrum ...(5)
Medially, how does Caudate nucleus shapped?
What's superior to lentiform nucleus?
What 2 structures make up lentiform nucleus?
Function of thalamus
Collection of sensory relay nuclei connecting subcortical regions of nervous system with cerebral cortex
What is thalamus nickname?
Gateway to the cerebral cortex
What does hypothalamic regulate? (7)
-autonomic nervous system
Why is thalamus a sensory relay system?
It direct the signals to the appropriate destination
What does epithalamus regulate? (2)
- -sleep/wake cycle
- *pineal gland
- -onset of puberty
- *by initiating development of genital glands
Function of subthalamus
Influences motor function
What is subthalamus part of?
Function of pineal gland (3)
-governs biological clock
- -regulates sleep-wake cycle
- *circadian rhythms
What does pineal gland do in zebrafish?
What does the brainstem connect?
Brain and the spinal cord
What are the 3 parts of brainstem?
Which 2 nerves originate from midbrain?
Which aqueduct runs through midbrain?
midbrain) what are the superior and inferior colliculi involved in?
Visual and auditory pathways
What are the superior and infe3rior colliculi called collectively?
Which NT does substantial nigra produce?
What does degenerative substantial nigra result?
Which 4 nerves originate from the pons?
pons: what does pneumotaxic center do?
Controls respiration and normal breathing patterns
Pons: where is 4th ventricle located?
Dorsal to Pons
Which 4 nerves arise from medulla?
What occurs in distal end of medulla?
- Pyramidal decussation
- *crossing of motor commands
Which 4 centers are located in medulla?
Medulla) cardiac center fucntion
Controls heart rate
Medulla) vasomotor center function
Controls blood pressure
Medulla) respiratory center function
Interacts with penumotaxic center in pons
Medulla) visceral control center function
For abdominal pelvic organ control
Where is cerebellum located?
Dorsal to pons and medulla
What are the primary functions of cerebellum?
- -important for motor coordination
- *error correction
- **bulls eye example
- -posture and Equilibrium
- *motor tasks involving these
Cerebellum communicates with which structures for posture and equilibrium? (3)
Group of structures that belong to limbic system (7)
Limbic system) septal nuclei fucntion
Limbic system) hippocampus fucntion
Long term memory
Limbic system) amygdala
What is reticular formation?
Diffuse nuclei scattered throughout the brain stem
Functions of reticular formation (2)
- Functions in keeping us alert and conscious
- *reticular activating system
- Helps dampen sensory input
- *vision or hearing
- *block out background noise and background vision sensory.
Where does reticular formation functions in? (2)
-function in the motor system
-visceral motor functions