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What is gustation?
Sense of taste
What is the receptor organ for gustation
What is the receptor type of gustation
- *gustatory hairs located on taste buds feel this
Most taste buds are found on Padilla of the tongue.. which 3 are they?
Which of the 3 Papillae contains the highest contraction of taste buds
Which has the least concentration of taste buds from the 3 papillae
Which cortex determines flavor?
Where are the taste buds embedded in?
Epithelium of tongue
What are taste buds formed by?
Nerves which transmit taste) CN VII
Anterior 2/3 of tongue
Nerves which transmit taste) CN IX
Posterior 1/3 of tongue
Nerves which transmit taste) CN X (2)
Pharynx and epiglottis
What is olfaction?
Sense of smell
What is the receptor organ for olfaction?
Olfactory cell (CN I) that are located in olfactory epithelium
What receptor type for olfaction?
What does the olfactory epithelium cover?
Superior nasal concha
Steps to how inhaled air molecules travel to cortex
-olfacotr receptor cells within olfactory epithelium pick up the air molecules. They send down the signal down their axons that pass through cribriform plate. It synapses with mitral cells in olfactory bulb which the sends the signals down the tract. Tract sends it down to the cortex
What do olfactory glands do?
deliver a mucus product to the surface of olfactory epithelium that traps airborne chemicals in order for them to interact with the nerve fibers of CN I
What does the levator palpebrae superiors muscle do?
Lifts the upper eyelid for opening of the eyes
What is the palpebral fissure?
Accessory structures of the eye (5)
-extra-ocular muscles of the eye
What do eyelids do? (2)
-protect the eyes
-provides lubrication across eye surface
What is another word for eyelids?
What does orbicularis oculi muscle do?
-closes eye tightly when activated
What innervates the orbicularis oculi muscle?
What causes the eye to close gently?
Levator superiors palpebrae muscle
How do facial expression muscles work?
They change our expressions because they are connected to the dermis of the skin instead of bone so it allows the muscles to contort different expressions
What controls the lacrimal apparatus?
- Parasympathetic nervous system
- **fibers are carried by facial nerve
- **that's why CN VII called tears & snot CN
- ***ex) runny nose after crying
What does lacrimal gland do?
Continually produces tears
Process of tears to getting through the nose
-they are produced by the lacrimal gland. It spreads out and the lacrimal canal shuttles it to the lacrimal sac. The lacrimal sac releases it through the nasolacrimal duct. This duct runs down the nose releasing the tears
Where do extrinsic muscle of the eye insert into
What are the 4 rectus muscles of the eye?
Which are the 2 oblique extrinsic muscles of the eye?
-superior and inferior oblique
What do extrinsic muscles of the eye do?
They move the eyeball
Which of the extrinsic muscles of the eye does not originate from the angular ring?
Inferior oblique muscle
Action of superior rectus
Elevates the eye
Action of inferior rectus
Depresses the eye
Action of medial rectus
Moves eye medially
Action of lateral rectus
Moves eye laterally
Action of superior oblique
Moves eye down and outward
Actions of inferior oblique
Moves eye up and outward
Where does inferior oblique originate from?
Which extrinsic eye muscles does the CN III innervates (4)
Which nerve innervates lateral rectus
Which nerve innervates superior oblique ?
How are compartments of the eye separated by?
Lens of the eye
What is the anterior segment filled with?
What is the posterior segment filled with?
What's the difference between aqueous and vitreous humor?
Aqueous humor is constantly being renewed while vitreous last a lifetime
What are the 3 tunics of the eyeball?
Which is the most superficial tunic?
What 2 structures are in the fibrous tunic?
Which 4 structures are in vascular tunic?
What is the receptor organ for vision?
- *contains rods and cones
What is iris?
The donut shaped figure
What is the pupil?
The center of the donut (iris)
What does the pupil do to the light?
- It allows light to go in
- *dilate or constrict
What can lens do?
It can alter the path of light after it passes through the pupil
What does central artery and vein of the retina do?
Delivers blood supply to 2/3 of nervous tunic
What is the optic disc? (2)
-exit of optic nerve
What is the macula lutea? (2)
-Central area termed the fovea
- -greatest visual acuity
- *contains only cones
What are the 2 layers of the nervous tunic?
What does nervous layer contain?
-photoreceptors cells (rods and cones) for transducing light
Rods are used for
Cones are used for
- Bright light
- *color receptors
What does the pigmented layer do? (3)
-aids photoreceptor renewal
-stores Vitamin A
Is the pigmented layer fused with nervous layer?
- no it is not
- *so retina may detach
Which cells send fibers to optic disc to form optic nerve?
Optic nervous structure diagram) which eye contributes to each structure : right optic nerve
Optic nervous structure diagram) which eye contributes to each structure : right optic chiasm
Optic nervous structure diagram) which eye contributes to each structure : right optic tract
Optic nervous structure diagram) which eye contributes to each structure : right optic radiations
- Both eyes
- **these take signals to optic cortex
Where do optic nerves mix together?
Where is auditory and vestibular systems located?
What receptor type for auditory and vestibular?
Which nerve innervates the auditory and vestibular?
What is the auricle/ pinna?
- Elastic cartilage structure
- *what forms the "ear"
- **the shape of this structure helps to deliver sound waves to the external auditory canal
What 2 parts make up the outer ear?
-external auditory meatus/canal
What does the external auditory canal do?
Directs the sound waves to bounce off the tympanic membrane
What does the middle ear contain?
- Tympanic cavity
- *air filled space
Middle ear) what are the 3 ossicles?
Middle ear) important structures (4)
What does the oval window do?
Articulates with stapes
What does the round window do?
-serves as pressure release for the organ of hearing, cochlea
What do ossicles do?
Transduce sound waves into mechanical vibrations
Which of the ossicles articulates with the tympanic membrane?
Which of the ossicles articulates with oval window of cochlea?
3 structures in inner ear
-vestibule and semicircular canals
Inner ear: what happens to CN VIII here?
- It splits into 2 to innervates both receptor organs
- *vestibular and cochlear nerve
Cochlea) 2 external features
-oval window articulates with stapes
-round window acts as a pressure release
Cochlea) internal feature
Cochlear duct contains organ of corti to transduce vibrations into sound
What is the receptor of sound?
Organ of corti within the cochlea
What innervates the receptor of hearing
Where is the organ of corti located?
In cochlear duct
Where does the organ of corti rests?
On the basilar membrane
What does the organ of corti contain?
Cell receptors for sound
Tectorial membrane and outer hair cells
The Tectorial membrane moves by the sound waves simulating the hair cells which then stimulate the cochlear nerve below
What are both vestibule and semicircular canals involved in?
What does the vestibule contain?
The maculae within saccule and utricle
What does vestibule respond to? (2)
-Static/linear forces of head position
What do semi-circular canals contain?
Each contains the Cristal ampullaris with Cuppula
What do semicircular canals respond to
- Dynamic/angular movements of the head
- *suddenly rotaing head
What does macula of utricle respond to...(2)
-tilting head side to side
What does macula of saccule respond to?
- Vertical movements
- *falling down or straight up
structure of macula) otoliths
Crystalline structures within inner ear which are embedded in otolith membrane
structure of macula) otolith membrane
- When we move, the membrane moves, ruffling the hair cells underneath
- *this is sensed as changed position
- *each hair cell has nerve fiber attached to it
What are the 3 semicircular canals?
What do the semicircular canals contain?
structure of Crista ampularis
What does the Crista ampularis respond to?
Changes in velocity of head movements
What is significant about the position of the 3 semicircular canals?
They are all oriented to orthogonal direction so when the combined feedback of the canals allow it to interpret 3 dimensions angular movement
What occurs when cupulla & Crista interact?
- It allows for transduction of angular head movements
- *similar to the otolith mebrane
What does Crista ampularis contain and what are they covered by?
Contains hair cells that are covered in gelatin mass, ampullary cupula
What are the 4 receptor types?
2 different receptor organs
-encapsulated or free nerve endings
Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) meissners corpuscles , where are they located?
Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) meissners corpuscles , respond to?
- -respond to light tough
- *called 2 point touch
- **discriminative touch
Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) pacinian corpuscles , where are they located? (2)
-dermis and hypodermis
Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) pacinian corpuscles, what do they not respond to>?
- Do not respond to sustained pressure
- *we forget about sitting down
Encapsulated Mechanoreceptors ) pacinian corpuscles, what do they respond?
- Deep pressure
- *stretch and vibration
- **on and off touch
somatosensation: general sense of pain) receptor organ
- Free nerve endings
somatosensation: general sense of pain) receptor type
somatosensation: general sense of pain) 3 types of nociceptors
- -chemical origin
- *hot sauce
What are the 3 levels of sensory neural integration?
What does receptor level do?
Sensory reception and transmission to cns
Processing in ascending pathways
Processing in cortical sensory centers
What is used to assess balance disorders?
- computerize dynamic posturography
What is the CPD used for?
Assessment tool to test different centers of balance
Apply different conditions to challenge specific sensory centers
Which 3 sense are tested in CPD