Qualitative Research

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Qualitative Research
2015-01-18 16:25:49
psychology quant

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  1. What are the Ethical standards one must maintain (e.g. anonymity)
    • Anonimity
    • Confidentiality/Disclosure
    • Informed consent
    • Deception
    • Participant request
  2. Mention the ethics boards
    UREC, Faculuty, & Uni board
  3. In ethical responsibility to research society:
    Misconduct by Conflict of interest, False findings
  4. Ontology of Qualitative
    Nature of reality:Multiple, and Subjective
  5. Epistemology
    • Environment:Lessen distance to research objects
    • Engaged, insider
  6. Axiology:
    • Role of values:
    • Include OWN values in narrative
    • Conscious of Subjective/bias
  7. Rhetoric
    Language, Informal, personal voice, limited definitions/tech  terms
  8. Methodology:
    • Inductive logic: Details-Generalization
    • Within context
  9. Paradigm and example
    • World view that guides action
    • example Positivism
  10. Posivitism has ___ Epostemology-
    • Representational:Reality can be known, Official Symbols describe
    • Patterns exist, which are "waiting to be found"
  11. Posivitism has ___ Ontology
    Realist ontology: Objective reality, One reality
  12. Posivitism uses ____ in methodology
    Deductive logic: From theory to hypotheses to empirical verificationAssumed free of bias if strict protocol followed
  13. Main 2 differences from posivitism-post-posivitism:
    • A. Multiple realities (not single)
    • B. Uses Rigurous Qualitative data analysis
  14. Pragmatism suggest use of what type of research?  (Trick question)
    We need to stop asking questions of ontology, methods are contextual and depends on "what works with this project"
  15. Advocacy/Participatory advise researchers to_____
    Research should include a PLAN OF ACTION (Advocacy) and subjects should PARTICIPATE in whole research process...... including designing questions
  16. Advocacy/Participatory deals usually with what type of societal issues?
    Dominance, Alienation, Suppression / Marginalized people
  17. Social contructivism/Interpretatism include two specific methods of Qual. research?
    • Grounded theory
    • Phenomenological studies
  18. Social contructivism/Interpretatism claims meanings are _____ and based on _____ which are _____ constructed
    Meanings SUBJECTIVE, based on SOCIAL/CULTURAL norms which are SOCIALLY
  19. Social contructivism/Interpretatism usually uses what type of data collection?
    Focus groups with open-ended questions
  20. Order a research paper from introduction to discussion:
    • Introduction
    • Literature review
    • Results/data analysis
    • Methodology
    • Discussion
  21. Describe what type of data analysis is used in qualitative research
    • Ongoing data analysis
    • Details forms genereal patterns
    • Coding processes with labelling categories/themes
    • Labels are usually based on participants own words
  22. Describe critical case sampling
    Choosing the subject with the most data, e.g. most intelligent student
  23. While a Bias-Error in Quantitative is seen as bad, in Qualitative research it is seen as ____ and therefore a
    • •What is a bias in quantitative sampling
    • is then an intended focus in qualitative sampling and therefore a strength.
    • •intends to select information rich cases
    • for study in depth
  25. In Random Probability Sampling, sample size
    is a function of ____ and desired ____ level
    population size and confidence level
  26. There are two main random probability sampling types:
    • •Simple Random Sample
    • (Permits
    • generalization from the sample to the population it represents)

    • •Stratified Random Sample and Cluster
    • Sample
    • (Increasedconfidence in making generalizations to particular subgroups)
  27. 22. Describe critical case sampling
    Choosing the subject with the most data, e.g. most intelligent student
  28. Snowball sampling also called
    Chain sampling
  29. Homogenous sample groups are usually used in ______
    • Focus groups
    • All are part of same group

    • Eg.
    • Parenting issues in lone parenthood
  30. Max-variation sampling and example-
    To find in-common groups, e.g. students from private/state/church school
  31. With random cluster/strata sampling, you can generealize to______
    The particular subgroup (only)
  32. Queer refers primarily to challenging _____ as single, _____, ______
    Challenging IDENTITY (not just sexuality) as single, clear, normalized
  33. Disability theory see the difference between a disabled person and others as _________ constructed.
  34. In disability, The disability is furthermore seen as a ______ rather than a defect.
  35. Armchair radicals propose change in______ not ______
    Thining not necessarily action
  36. Dominant theme in feminist studies is:
    Issue of dominance... Deals with institutions and situations
  37. The "lowest"/Worst form of sampling is called:
    Opportunistic, emergent, impromptu sampling
  38. Interviews should be...
    Gentle, clear, structured, knowledgable, balanced, crticial, interpetative, steering, open
  39. One of the primariy tenents of Thematic Analysis (TA) is that the researcher has an active role in ______
    Themes - rather than letting them "emerge from data"
  40. Thematic analysis involves ____, ____, _____ ... Themes/Patterns
    Identifying, analyzing, reporting
  41. The _____ position must be made clear in good TA
    Theoretical, including Realist/Essentialist - Constructionist - Contextualist
  42. Realist/Essentialist theoretical position of TA include
    Reporting meaning, experiences of reality. It's the most common one used
  43. Constructionist theoretical perspective of TA claims our experiences are
    Socially constructed
  44. Level 1 and Level 2 of data analysis refers to:
    • Level 1: Space themes within each data item,
    • Level 2: Space themes within whole data set
  45. In TA, a higher prevalence of a theme does/does not mean it's more important
    Does NOT mean it's more important
  46. Themes in TA come at 3 levels: S/E ____ L/I _____ R/C
    Semantic/Explicit +++ Latent/Interpretative +++ Realist/Constructionist
  47. Themes in TA should be checked against 2 things ___ , ____
    Each other and for consistency/distinctiveness/coherent
  48. In TA you can use interview schedule as themes T/F?
    False, bad bad bad
  49. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis IPA, assert that the Phenomenology refers to
    "Going back to things themselves", Participants perception (Idiographic phenomena)
  50. IPA asses interpretation is a "double hermeneutic", explain
    Distorted bias from both subjectiveness of participant AND researcher - double.
  51. Data collection in IPA is usually thro ____ with 2 main questions.... ____ , _____
    Semi-structured interviewsA. EXPERIENCES in terms of XB. CONTEXT/SITUATIONS that affected experiences of X
  52. In data analysis of IPA, the research first 1) ID _____, 2) integrate ____ into _____ and 3) Use a table to see within/across _____
    Identify themes (Surprise surprise!), Integrate themes into CLUSTERS and Use a table to see within/across cases
  53. In IPA, you use a table to see within/across _____ in order to establish ______ themes
    Within/Across cases to establish MASTER themes
  54. Quality criterion of Qual. Research differs from traditional research criteria, Identify the four main critera for assuring quality: -
  55. CREDIBILITY asseses ________ of research
  56. CREDIBILITY is in traditional criteria referred to as ____ validity, and can be achieved through _____, ______, _____, _____, _____
  57. TRANSFERABILITY is in traditional criteria reffered to as ____ validity, and can be achieved through _____, ______,
    (Traditionally called EXTERNAL VALIDITY) can be achieved through PURPOSIVE SAMPLING and THICK DESCRIPTION
  58. Instead of External Validity (ecological validity) Qualitative researchers check for ______ which means _______
    TRANSFERABILITY which means it will fit outside the situation
  59. Instead of traditional criterion of RELIABILIY quality, Qualitative researchers look for _______ which means _______ ... Can be achieved through ______ , _______, ______, ________
    DEPENDABILITY which means that the researcher is consistent. Can be achieved through PEER EXAMINATION, AUDIT TRAIL, CODE-RECODING and TRIANGULATION
  60. Instead of traditional criterion of OBJECTIVITY, Qualitative researchers look for _______ which can be achieved through _______
  61. Main methods of quality assessment include ....
    Inter-rater reliability, respondent feedback, deviant case analysis, triangulation of: sources, investigators, methods and theory
  62. Important for the quality of research includes ______ Sensitivity, Com______ and Rig_____, Trans______ and Coh______, Imp______ and Imp____
  63. There are thre procedures in qualitative research which need to be assesed, namely (think of research paper content): Quality of _____, Quality of _______ and Quality of ______
    Methods, Data (Verbatim, Long translations), Data analysis
  64. In Narrative Inquiry, what is the most common data collection method:
    semi structured Interviews
  65. In Narrative Inquiry you should create _____ of the experiences in _____ person and _____ tense
    Stories, third person and past tense
  66. In Narrative Inquiry, you should include which part of the stories:
    Plot, Scenes, Characters/Cast (Supportive cas), Main storyteller, a beginning and end
  67. In Narrative Inquiry you develop the combination of CATEGORIES into ______
  68. In Narrative Inquiry you usually use _____ sampling, including ______, ______ and ______
    Purposive/Non-probability; Homogenous, Extreme/deviant, criterion sampling
  69. In Narrative Inquiry, The self is seen as ______
    A story in itself
  70. In Narrative Inquiry you mainly look for what happened or meaning of what happened?-
    Surprise surprise, Meaning...
  71. In Narrative Inquiry usually looks into problems of everyday people or marginalized people?
  72. Narrative Inquiry has 2 main critiques, namely:
    • A. Stories are particularly subjective
    • B. Lack cohesive method for analysis - Not trustworthy
  73. In Narrative Inquiry, the INTERNALIZED SOLOQUES refers to
    Self-talk or imagined others
  74. Grounded theory was "invented" by ______ with purpose of developing new ______ firmly grounded in ______
    -Glaser/Strauss, develop new THEORIES firmly grounded in DATA
  75. Grounded theory has a CONSTANT interplay between _____ and _____.... this is referred to as an _____ process
    Data-collection and analysis , and inductive process
  76. In grounded theory, it's very important to actually not limit yourself to existing ______ or existing ________
    Existing CONCEPTS, existing THEROEIS
  77. A VERY important part of Grounded Theory includes _______ as  record keeping
    Memo writing
  78. Theoretical Sensitivity in Grounded Theory refers to the coding of meaning... from ___ to ____
    Descriptive to Analytic
  79. Categories should be labelled in-vivo according to Grounded theory, what the fuck does that mean?
    Phrases as used by participants
  80. Ways categories could be linked in Grounded Theory is called
  81. Constantly identifying differences within a category in Grounded Theory is called
    Constant comparative analysis
  82. Theoretical sampling is ____ used a lot in ____
    Sampling based on theory-hypothesis, used in grounded theory a lot!
  83. It is important to ascribe to Theoretical Saturation in Grounded Theory, wtf is that
    Exhaust all possible categories
  84. Advantages of Grounded theory includes:
    • Appeal to novices, involved in Data
    • Analysis is detailed and early on
    • Useful for repeated processes e.g. doctor-patient communication
    • CONFIRMABILITY, to be able to back up with data
  85. Disadvantage of Grounded Theory include
    • Tedious, overwhelming
    • Can be difficult to "scale up" theories, usually produce lower level theories only
  86. Ethnography uses ____ methods, including...
  87. In Ethnography, one will look particularly at the ______, signified by ____ and _____
    • Culture, 
    • Norms and Symbols
  88. In analysis of Ethnography, you should use a high level of ...
  89. In case studies, you record cases, AKA ___ Systems
    Bounded systems
  90. What methods are used in case studies
    Observations, documents, interviews, audio-visual... and more
  91. in Case Studies, What you report is ____ themes
    Case-Based themes
  92. In case studies you would you _____ sampling
  93. Type of case studie: Single Instrumental refers to ____ issues and ____ cases
    One issue, one case only
  94. Collective studies in case studies deals with ____ issue/s and ____ case/s
    ONE issue, several cases
  95. Intrinsic case studies refer to studying the _____ itself rather than
    The Case itself rather than main issue
  96. The analysis in case studies is _____ and cover _____
    Holistic, whole case
  97. Embedded in the case studie should be:
    • Day by day activities,
    • History,
    • Within-Across case analysis
  98. In Case studies, you can use both inductive and deductive theoretical perspectives, T/F
    True, sometimes used deductive, go from theory> case
  99. Challenges of the case studies include boundaries of
    Start/End, ID the case, which System to choose
  100. Case studies include studies of a P_____ , a P_____ , a G_____ , an A______
    Person, Program, Group or an Activity