Pathoma

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Author:
Neda317
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293269
Filename:
Pathoma
Updated:
2015-01-19 01:10:28
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pathoma
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  1. non-mutated serum transthyretin deposit 
    1)condition?
    2)increase in serum?
    • 1-senile cardiac amyloidosis, asymptomatic 
    • 2-ANP atrium natriuretic peptide
  2. mutated serum transthyretin deposit
     1)condition?
    2)CC
    3)carriers
    • 1-familial amyloid cardiomyopathy 
    • 2-restrictive cardiomyopathy 
    • AA carry the mutated gene
  3. dialysis associated amyloydosis 
    deposit what and where
    beta-2 microglobulin deposits in joints
  4. Arachidonic Acid 
    what mediates vasodilation and inc vascular permeability?
    PG: I,D,E 2
  5. which PG also mediates pain and fever
    PGE2
  6. Mast cell activation
    • 1) tissue trauma 
    • 2)complement C3a and C5a
    • 3)cross-linkage of IgE by antigen
  7. mediators of acute inflammation
    • 1) toll like receptors 
    • 2) Arachidonic acid 
    • 3) mast cell activation 
    • 4)complements 
    • 5)Hageman factor (XII)
  8. mast cell immediate response
    histamine release
  9. delayed mast cell response
    Arachidonic acid specially leukotrienes
  10. C5a function
    • anaphylaxis 
    • chemotactic neutrophils
  11. C5b fun
    complement C6-C9 MAC
  12. C3a func
    anaphylaxis
  13. C3b func
    opsonin for phagocytosis
  14. Hageman is
    factor XII
  15. hageman activated by _____ then activates ____, _____, ______
    subendothilial or tissue collagen then activates coagulation and fibrinilytic system, complement, kinin system
  16. activation of kinin system
    Hageman factor cleaves high molecular weight kinin (HMWK) to bradykinin --> vasodilation and inc vascular permeability (similar to histamine) and pain
  17. Hageman has imprtant role in
    DIC
  18. Pain mediated by
    PGE2 and  bradykinin
  19. fever
    IL-1 and TNF from Macrophage
  20. E-selectin mediated by
    Weible patade bodies mediated by histamine
  21. E-selectin mediated by
    IL-1 and TNF
  22. selectin binds to
    sialy lewis X
  23. ICAM and VCAM upregulated on endothelium by
    IL-1 and TNF
  24. integrins on leukocytes unregulated by
    C5a and LTB4
  25. LAD defect in ___and cc
    • integrin CD18 
    • delayed umbilical cord separation 
    • recurent bac infections and absence of pus
  26. neutrophils are attracted by
    • bacterial products 
    • IL-8
    • C5a
    • LTB4
  27. what is phagosome
    psudopods extends from leukocytes and engulf the pathogen and merge to lysosomes by microtubles pathway to produce phagolysosomes
  28. chediak-higashi defect in
    microtuble pathway --> impaired phagolysosome formation
  29. chediak-higashi cc:
    • 1-inc pyogenic infec
    • 2-neutopenia
    • 3-giant granules in leukocytes 
    • 4-defective in prim hemostasia
    • 5-albinism
    • 6-peripheral neuropathy
  30. Th1 secrets
    • IL-2
    • INF-gama
    • TNF-beta
  31. Th2 secrets
    • IL-4
    • IL-5
    • IL-6
    • IL-10
    • IL-13
    • TGF-beta
  32. what inhibits Th1
    • IL-4
    • IL-10
  33. what inhibits Th2
    • IL-2
    • IFN-gama
  34. digeorge syn. failure of ____ what chr?
    • 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouch 
    • chr 22q11 microdeletion
  35. SCID def of
    Adenosine deaminase
  36. def in bruton Tyrosin kinase (BTK)
    X-link agammaglobinemia
  37. agammaglobinemia pron to and avoid
    • Giardia Lamblia 
    • recurrent bac infection 
    • Avoid Live vaccine
  38. common variable immunodeficiency ?
    inc risk of --
    • late onset of hypogammaglobinemia 
    • due to  or helper T cell defect 
    • inc risk of autoimmune disease and Lymphoma
  39. IgA def seen in pt w
    celiac disese
  40. thrombocytopenia
    eczema
    recurrent infection
    • wiskott-aldrich syndrome 
    • mut in WASP gene on x-link
  41. wiskott-aldrich syndrome finding
    • dec to normal IgG and IgM
    • inc IgE and IgA 
    • dec expiration of CD-154
  42. C1 inhibitor deficiency result in
    hereditary angioedema (edema of skin specially periorbital and musocal surface)
  43. drugs
    that cause SLE
    • Hydralazine
    • procainamide 
    • isoniazid
  44. sjogren syndrome high risk of
    B-cell (marginal zone) lymphoma
  45. sjogren syndrome marker
    • ANA ab 
    • anti-ribonucleoprotein ab
    • anti SSA/ro or SSB/La
  46. scleroderma characterized by
    ANA and anti DNA topoisomerase (SCL-70) ab
  47. vit C is important cofactor in
    • hydroxylation of lysine and proline procollogen residue 
    • hydroxylation is necessary for collagen cross-linking
  48. copper is a cofactor for
    lysyl oxidase which cross-links lysine and hydroxylysine to form stable collagen
  49. zinc is a cofactor for
    collagenase which replaces the type III colagen w collagen type I
  50. myofibroblast func
    contaction of wound
  51. what is normal ratio for G6PD
    1:1
  52. colanality of B lymphocyte is determined by
    Ig light chain
  53. normal kappa to lambda light chain ratio is
    3:1
  54. benign epithelium
    • adenoma
    • papilloma
  55. malignant epithelium
    • adenocarcinoma
    • papillary carcinoma
  56. benign mesenchyme
    lipoma
  57. malignant mesenchyme
    liposarcoma
  58. benign lymphocyte
    nothing
  59. malignant lymphocyte
    lymphoma/ leukemia
  60. benign melanocyte
    nevus
  61. malignant melanocyte
    melanoma
  62. earliest cc arise after how many divisions
    30
  63. cancer formation initiated by
    damage to DNA of stem cells
  64. growth actor
    PDGFB
  65. GF receptors
    • ERBB2/HER2 neu 
    • RET
    • KIT
  66. signal transducers
    • RAS gene family 
    • ABL
  67. nuclear regulators
    • c-MYC
    • N-MYC
    • L-MYC
  68. cell cycle regulators
    • CCND1 (cyclin D1) 
    • CDK4
  69. PDGFB 
    func:
    mechanism:
    associated tumor:
    • platelet derivative GF 
    • over expression, autocrine loop 
    • Astrocytoma
  70. ERBB2/ HER2 nue 
    func:
    mechanism:
    associated tumor:
    • epidermal GF receptor 
    • amplification 
    • subset of breast carcinoma
  71. RET 
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • neural GF receptor 
    • point mutation 
    • MEN2A and MEN2B and sporatic medullary carcinoma of thyroid
  72. KIT 
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • stem cell GF receptor 
    • point mut 
    • GI stromal tumor
  73. RAS 
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • GTP-binding protein 
    • point mutation 
    • carcinoma, melanoma, and lymphoma
  74. ABL
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • TK 
    • t(9;22) w BCR aka ph+ (Philadelphia) 
    • CML and some type of ALL
  75. c-myc
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • TF
    • t(8;14) IgH
    • burkitt lymphoma
  76. n-myc 
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • TF
    • amplification 
    • neuroblastoma
  77. L-myc 
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • TF
    • amplification 
    • lung carcinoma (small cell)
  78. CCND1 (cyclin D1)
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • cyclin
    • t(11;14) involving IgH 
    • mantle cell lymphoma
  79. CDK4 
    func:mechanism:associated tumor:
    • cyclin dependent kinase 
    • amplification
    • melanoma
  80. Aflatoxins (Aspergillus)
    Hepatocellular carcinoma
  81. Alkylating agents
    • Leukemia/lymphoma
    • side effect of chemotherapy
  82. Aromatic amines(e.g., benzidine,2-naphthylamine)
    • Transitional cell carcinoma
    • Bladder
  83. Arsenic
    • Liver: Angiosarcoma
    • Lung: Lung cancer
    • Skin: Squamous cell carcinoma
  84. Asbestos
    • Bronchogenic carcinoma > mesothelioma
    • lung
  85. alcohol
    • SSC of oropharynx and upper esophagus, 
    • pacreatic carcinoma 
    • hepatocellular carcinoma
  86. Carbon tetrachloride
    • Centrilobular necrosis, fatty change
    • Liver
  87. Cigarette smoke
    • Bladder:Transitional cell carcinoma
    • Esophagus:Squamous cell carcinoma /adenocarcinoma
    • Kidney:Renal cell carcinoma
    • Larynx:Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Lung: Squamous cell and small cell carcinoma
    • Pancreas: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
  88. Ionizing radiation
    Papillary thyroid carcinoma
  89. Nitrosamines (smokedfoods)
    Gastric cancer
  90. Radon
    Lung cancer (2nd leading cause after cigarettesmoke)
  91. Vinyl chloride
    Angiosarcoma of liver
  92. nickel, chromium, beryllium or silica
    lung carcinoma
  93. non-ionizing radiation 
    UVB
    • basal cell carcinoma 
    • SSC
    • melanoma
  94. Oncogenic microbes
    • EBV:
    • HBV,HCV
    • HHV-8
    • HPV
    • H.pylori
    • HTLV-1
    • Liver fluke(Clonorchis sinensis)
    • schistosoma haematobium
  95. Liver fluke (Clonorchis sinensis)
    Cholangiocarcinoma
  96. Schistosoma haematobium
    Bladder cancer (squamous cell)
  97. immunohistochemical stain
    intermediate filament : Keratin
    tissue type
    epithelium
  98. immunohistochemical stain
    intermediate filament : vimenlin 
    tissue type
    mesenchyme
  99. immunohistochemical stain
    intermediate filament : Desmin
    tissue type
    muscle
  100. immunohistochemical stain
    intermediate filament :GEAP
    tissue type
    neuroglia
  101. immunohistochemical stain
    intermediate filament : neurofilament
    tissue type
    neurons
  102. immunohistochemical stain
    PSA
    prostatic epithelium
  103. immunohistochemical stain
    ER
    breast epithelium
  104. immunohistochemical stain
    thyroglobulin
    thyroid follicular cells
  105. immunohistochemical stain
    Chromogranin *****
    Neuroendocrine cell (small cell ca, carcinoid tumor)
  106. immunohistochemical stain
    S-100
    melanoma
  107. carcinomas but spread w blood
    • RCC
    • HCC
    • follicular carcinoma of thyroid 
    • choriocarcinoma

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