Placenta and Fetal membranes

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MarineLopes
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293272
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Placenta and Fetal membranes
Updated:
2015-01-18 18:34:41
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embryo
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section 6
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  1. The umbilical cord may loop around the fetus or become knotted, which may cause fetal distress.

    True.

    False.
    True

    The fetal distress is caused by reducing umblical vessel flow
  2. When the amniotic fluid exceeds two liters, the condition is called:

    Oligohydramnios.

    Polyhydramnios or hydramnios.

    Amniotitis.

    Bag of waters.

    Hydrogravida.
    Polyhydramnios or hydramnios
  3. What's the cause of polyhydramnios?
    Failure of the detus to drink the normal amount amniotic fluid.

    May be due to : anencephaly,esophageal atresia or upper GIT blockage
  4. What's oligohydramnios?
    • too little amniotic fluid.
    • may indicate urinary problems
  5. The wall of the chorionic sac is composed of?

    Cytotrophoblast & syncytiotrophoblast.

    Two layers of trophoblast lined by extraembryonic somatic mesoderm.

    Trophoblast and exocoelomic membrane.

    Extraembryonic splanchnic mesoderm & both layers of the trophoblast.

    Cytotrophoblast in the outer shell and syncytium in the inner shell
    2 layers of trophoblast lined by extraembryonic somatic mesoderm.

    Cytotrophoblast in the outer shell and syncytium in the inner shell
  6. The most distinctive characteristic of a primary chorionic villus is its:

    Outer syncytiotropoblastic layer.

    Cytotrophoblastic shell.

    Extraembryonic somatic mesodermal core.

    Bushy appearancy.

    Cytotrophoblastic core
    Cytotrophoblast core
  7. What's the characteristic in common with all chorionic villi?
    outer layer of syncytiotrophoblast
  8. what's the characteristic  feature of the mature chorion?
    cytotrophoblast shell
  9. What forms the core of the secondary villi?
    extraembryonic somatic mesoderm
  10. Chorionic villi are designed as secondary chorionic villi when they:

    Contact with decidua basalis.

    Are covered with syncytiotrophoblast.

    Develop a mesenchymal core.

    Give rise to branch villi

    Have a core of extraembryonic somatic mesoderm
    • Develop a mesenchymal core
    • Have a core of extraembryonic mesoderm
  11. When chorionic villi become vascularized they are called ______ villi:

    Branch.

    Stem.

    Tertiary.

    Anchoring.

    Mature.
    Tertiary
  12. Maturation of the villi involves what?
    thining of the placental barrier so that just a thin layer of syncytium , ECM and endothelium separates maternal and fetal blood
  13. The most important region of the decidua fot the nourishment of the conceptus is the decidua:

    Frondosum.

    Capsularis.

    Basalis.

    Parietalis.

    Capsularis.
    Decidua basalis
  14. What are the maternal and fetal elemnts of the placenta?
    • maternal element: decidua basalis
    • fetal element : chorion frondosum or billous chorion
  15. what decidua covers the chorion laeve?
    decidua capsularis
  16. The intervillous space contains all of the following substances EXCEPT:

    Electrolytes.

    Oxygen.

    Maternal blood cells.

    Fetal blood.

    Carbon dioxide
    Fetal blood
  17. What separates the fetal blood from intervillous space?
    placental barrier
  18. The intervillous space
    contains which of the following substances?

    Electrolytes.

    Oxygen.

    Maternal blood cells.

    Fetal blood.

    Carbon dioxide.
    • electrolytes
    • oxygen
    • maternal blood cells
    • CO2
  19. Which of the following materials usually do not cross the placental membrane or barrier?

    Free fatty acids.

    Steroid hormones.

    Bacteria.

    Vitamins.

    Viruses.

    Water .
    • bacteria 
    • although syphilis treponema may pass and reach the fetus
  20. what sort of hurfull things may be transported to fetus?
    • drugs
    • viruses
    • harmful antibodies
    • harmful hormones
  21. The tissue of the four-week embryo that lies in contact with the decidua basalis is:

    Cytotrophoblastic shell.

    Syncytiotrophoblastic shell.

    Chorion leave.

    Extraembryonic somatic mesoderm.
    • Cytotrophoblastic shell
    • Following this, the syncytium lines the intervillous space primarily
  22. At or near term, the intervillous space has a total volume of

    150 mL.

    400 mL.

    500 mL.

    1000 mL.

    1500-2000 mL.
    • 150ml.
    • this blood is replenished 3 to 4 times per minute
  23. What's the primary source of fetal energy?

    The fetal intestines.

    The placenta.

    Amniotic fluid.

    Maternal fat.
    placenta
  24. The portion of the decidua, which does not survive until the end of the pregnancy is the:

    Capsularis.

    Basalis.

    Parietalis

    Frondosum.

    Leave.
    Capsularis
  25. Attachment of the umbilical cord to the fetal membranes instead of to the placenta is called:

    Battldore placenta.

    Wharton’s placenta.

    Velamentous insertion.

    Cotyledon placenta.

    Ecentric insertion
    velamentous insertion
  26. Attachment of the umbilical cord onto the margin of the placenta instead on the eccentric part of the placenta is called :

    Battldore placenta.

    Wharton’s placenta.

    Velamentous insertion.

    Cotyledon placenta.

    Ecentric insertion.
    battldore placenta
  27. what's the wharton's jelly?
    • mucopolysaccharide material surrounding the umblical vessels.
    • rich in proteoglycans 
    • protects blood vessels
  28. Amniotic fluid IS NOT concerned with:

    Regulation of fetal temperature.

    Exchange of fetal wastes.

    Protection of the conceptus.

    Early nutrition of the embryo.
    early nutrition of the embryo
  29. Amniotic fluid arises from what?
    • amniotic membrane ( amniotic cells)
    • diffusion from the decidua ( maternal blood)
    • fetal urine
  30. Which of the following IS NOT TRUE concerning decidua basalis:

    Lies between the villus chorion and the myometrium.

    Forms the “roof” of the placenta.

    Supplies blood to the intervillous spaces.

    Is partially composed of fetal tissues.

    Spiral vessels go from basalis to the intervillous space
    is partially composed of detal tissues . all decidual tissues are maternal tissues only
  31. Which of the following IS TRUE concerning decidua basalis: 

    Lies between the villus chorion and the myometrium.

    Forms the “roof” of the placenta.

    It is over the chorion frondosum.

    Supplies blood to the intervillous spaces.

    Is partially composed of fetal tissues.

    Spiral vessels go from basalis to the intervillous space

    Consists of the decidual plate ( decidual cells) with abundant amounts of lipids and glycogen
    • Lies between the villus chorion and the myometrium
    • Forms the roof of the placenta;
    • Supplies blood to the intervillous spaces;
    • Spiral vessels go from basalis to the intervillous space
    • Consists of the decidual plate ( decidual cells) with abundant amounts of lipids and glycogen.
    • It is over the chorion frondosum.
  32. Mechanisms involved in placental transfer of material include:

    Facilitated diffusion.

    Pinocytosis.

    Active transport.

    Simple diffusion.
    • Facilitated diffusion.
    • Pinocytosis.
    • Active transport.
    • Simple diffusion.
  33. Which of the following is NOT TRUE concerning the umbilical cord?

    It usually attaches near the center of the placenta.

    It may not be attached to the placenta.

    It normally contains two arteries and one vein.

    It may form a knot that can cause fetal distress.

    It contains cardiac jelly.
    it contains cardiac jelly. Wharton's jelly surrounds umbilical arteries and one vein.

    there is also velamentous insertion and battledore placenta
  34. Which of the following is TRUE concerning the umbilical cord?

    It usually attaches near the center of the placenta.

    It may not be attached to the placenta.

    It normally contains two arteries and one vein.

    It may form a knot that can cause fetal distress.

    It contains cardiac or Wharton’s jelly.
    • it usually attaches near the center of the placenta ( eccentric)
    • it may not be attached to the placenta (velamentous insertion and battledore placenta)
    • it normally contains 2 arteries and 1 vein ( umbilical)
    • it may form a knot that can cause fetal distress.
  35. The chorionic sac surrounds the embryo, amniotic sac and yolk sac.

    True.

    False.
    • True .
    • This is true during the embryonic period.
    • Later , the growth of the fetus and amniotic cavity  obliterates the chorionic cavity and the amnion and chorion fuse to form the amniochorionic membrane.
  36. How is the amniochorionic membrane formed?
    he growth of the fetus and amniotic cavity obliterates the chorionic cavity and the amnion and chorion fuse to form the amniochorionic membrane.
  37. Which of the following is NOT a component of the mature placental barrier?

    The endothelial linnning of fetal capillaries.

    The cytotrophoblast.

    The syncytiotrophoblast.

    The basement membrane of fetal capillaries.
    the cytotrophoblast
  38. Which of the following is a component of the mature placental barrier? 

    The endothelial linnning of fetal capillaries.

    The cytotrophoblast.

    The syncytiotrophoblast.

    The basement membrane of fetal capillaries.

    Syncytium
    • the endothelial lining of fetal capillaries
    • the syncytiotrophoblast /syncytium
    • the basement membrane of fetal capillaries
  39. Which is NOT true concerning the human placenta?

    Is divided into a number of cup-like compartments by incomplete septae of maternal tissue.

    Has an intervillous space filled with maternal blood and lined with syncytiotrophoblast.

    Has chorionic villi as functional units.

    Is anchored to maternal tissue by columns of syncytiotrophoblast.
    Is anchored to maternal tissue by columns of syncytiotrophoblast.
  40. Which is true concerning the human placenta?

    Is divided into a number of cup-like compartments by incomplete septae of maternal tissue.

    Has an intervillous space filled with maternal blood and lined with syncytiotrophoblast.

    Has chorionic villi as functional units.

    Is anchored to maternal tissue by columns of syncytiotrophoblast.
    • Is divided into a number of cup-like compartments by incomplete septae of maternal tissue.
    • Has an intervillous space filled with maternal blood and lined with syncytiotrophoblast
    • Has chorionic villi as functional units.
  41. In the placenta preavia, the
    placenta may detach and cause severe bleeding and fetal anoxia during delivery.


    True.

    False.
    true
  42. The human placenta:

    Has a maternal component formed by the decidua capsularis.

    Shows no changes with age.

    Retains the cytotrophoblastic layer of the placental barrier throughout the gestation.

    Has chorionic villi as the structural and functional unit
    has the chorionic villi as the structural and functional unit
  43. The placental intervillous space:

    Is divided into compartments by the placental septa.

    It is a continuous space throughout the septa.

    Is lined by syncytiotrophoblast.

    Contains circulating maternal
    blood.
    • is divided into compartments by the placental septa
    • it is a continuous space throughtout the septa
    • is lined by syncytiotrophoblast
    • contains circulating maternal blood
  44. How do we call the compartments of ythe placental intervillous space formed by the placental septa?
    Cotyledons
  45. Under normal conditions, the placenta acts as a barrier against:

    Transfer of drugs and their metabolites.

    Transfer of all infectious agents.


    Transfer of nutrients.

    Mixing of maternal and fetal blood.

    Transfer of hormones.
    Mixing of maternal and fetal blood
  46. Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is produced by what?

    Syncytiotrophoblast.

    Anterior pituitary gland.

    Theca folliculi.

    Copus luteum of pregnancy.

    Emrbyoblast.
    Syncytiothrophoblast
  47. What is the function of the HCG?
    • Maintains the corpus luteum
    • Stimulates the corpus luteum to release estrogen and progesterone which inhibit menstruation and allow pregnancy to continue
  48. Which of the following materials usually cross the placental membrane?

    Free fatty acids.

    Steroid hormones.

    Drugs and chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 500.

    Vitamins.

    Viral agents.

    Maternal antibodies.

    Amino acids 

    Carbohydrates
    • Free fatty acids
    • steroid hormones
    • drugs and chemicals under 500
    • vitamins
    • viral agents
    • maternal antibodies IgG
    • Amino acids
    • Carbhydrates
  49. Which structure is responsible for transport of nutrients of the fetus?

    Cytotrophoblastic shell.

    Trophoblast.

    Decidua basalis.

    Cotydelon.

    Spiral artery.

    Intervillous space.

    Teriary villus.

    Umbilical artery.

    Umbilical vein.

    Syncytial knot.

    Vitelline duct.

    Chorion frondosum.

    Amnion.
    Umbilical vein
  50. Which structure is found in the umbilical cord, but is not part of the fetal circulatory system?

    Cytotrophoblastic shell.

    Trophoblast.

    Decidua basalis.

    Cotydelon.

    Spiral artery.

    Intervillous space.

    Teriary villus.

    Umbilical artery.

    Umbilical vein.

    Syncytial knot.

    Vitelline duct.

    Chorion frondosum.

    Amnion.
    Vitelline duct
  51. What is teh name of the remants of vitelline duct that were not suppose to exist?
    • vitelline duct cyst
    • fistula
    • merkel's diverticulum
  52. Which of the following structures should normally be found as a pair?

    Cytotrophoblastic shell.

    Trophoblast.

    Decidua basalis.

    Cotydelon.

    Spiral artery.

    Intervillous space.

    Teriary villus.

    Umbilical artery.

    Umbilical vein.

    Syncytial knot.

    Vitelline duct.

    Chorion frondosum.

    Amnion.
    Umbilical artery

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