Chapters 9 & 10 Anatomy Physiology

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Chapters 9 & 10 Anatomy Physiology
2015-01-19 17:32:39
Chapters 10 Anatomy Physiology

Chapter 9 senses & Chapter 10 Endocrine System
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  1. after loss of a hand, the person may still feel that the hand is really there.  The receptor in the hands are no longer present, but the severed nerve endings continue to generate impulses.
    Phantom Pain
  2. some sensation are felt more distinctly and to greater degree than are others.  when more receptors are stimulated, more impulses will arrive in the sensory part of the brain.
  3. The effect of a current sensation may be exaggerated.
  4. A stimulus is still present, but we become unaware of it.
  5. the stimulus stops, but we remain aware of the sensation.
    Ex: the ringing in the ear you hear after hearing a loud sound.
  6. Found in dermis of skin. Gives us information about changes in external environment.
    Location of Cutaneous Senses
  7. For the senses of pain, heat, cold, and itch, the receptors are?
    • Free Nerve Endings
  8. For the senses of touch and pressure, the receptors are?
    • Encapsulated nerve endings
  9. The pain that originates in an internal organ may be felt as?
    • Referred Pain
  10. Are in the taste buds on the tongue.
    Impulses are interpreted in a sensory area that overlaps the temporal-parietal lobes.
    Cranial nerve that is sensory is the facial nerve.
    Cranial nerve that is sensory is the glossopharyngeal nerve.
    Receptors detect chemicals in solution in saliva.
    Taste Buds (Chemoreceptors)
  11. Chemoreceptors are in the upper nasal cavities
    impulses are interpreted in a sensory area in the temporal lobes only.
    a cranial nerve that is sensory is the olfactory nerve.
    the receptor detects vaporized chemicals.
    Olfaction (Chemoreceptors)
  12. triggered by internal changes
    hunger and thirst
    Visceral sensation
  13. detects changes in blood nutrient levels, the blood levels of hormones from the stomach and small intestines and hormone leptin released by adipose tissue.
    Stimulus for hunger
  14. no adaptation. if body water is lost, then the amount keeps decreasing and doesn't stabilize.
    stimulus for thirst
  15. a thin membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the whites of eyes. merge with the corneal epithelium.
    • conjunctiva
  16. within the orbits; secrete tears. mostly H2O with 1% Na.
    • lacrimal glands
  17. An enzyme in tears that inhibits the growth of bacteria on the front of the eyeballs.
  18. Medial corner of the eyelids are 2 small openings into the superior and inferior lacrimal canals located in the lacrimal bone.
    • Lacrimal sac
  19. Takes tears to the nasal cavity. This is why crying often makes the nose run.
  20. the transparent part of the sclera that refracts light.
    • Cornea
  21. contains a dark blue pigment to absorb light and prevent glare within the eyeball
    • choroid layer
  22. The only adjustable part of the light-refracting system.
    • lens
  23. Regulates the size of the pupil
    • iris
  24. the layer of the eyeball that contains the visual receptors.
    • Retina
  25. Contains rhodopsin and detect the presence of light
    Retina Rods
  26. The receptors that detect color.
    Retina Cones
  27. there are 2 cavities within the eye.  The larger cavity formed between the lens and retina.  Contains the vitreous humor/vitreous body.
    posterior cavity
  28. semisolid substance keeps the retina in place.
    • vitreous humor/vitreous body
  29. found between the back of cornea and the front of the lens, contains aqueous humor
    • anterior cavity
  30. Tissue fluid of the eyeball.  Formed by capillaries in the ciliary body, flows anteriorly through the pupil and is reasorbed by canal of schlemm at junction of the iris and cornea.
    Aqueous Humor
  31. light ray is the deflection/bend of light ray as it passes through one object and into another object of greater/lesser density.
  32. formed by ganglion neurons, transmits impulses from the retina to the brain.
    Optic Nerve
  33. light travels through cornea, aqueous humor, lens, and vitreous humor.
    pathway of refraction
  34. where optic nerves from both eye come together at.  Just in front of pituitary gland.
    • Optic chiasma
  35. the lobes of the cerebral cortex that contain the sensory areas for vision.
    occipital lobes
  36. The ear contains receptors for senses of _____ and _____.
    Hearing & Equilibrium
  37. Name 3 major parts of the ear?
    Outer ear, middle ear, inner ear.
  38. is made of skin supported by cartilage. Outer ear.
  39. Does auricle have a significant function to humans?
    No, because it's not movable.
  40. Pinna is alternate name for?
  41. The _____ is a tunnel into the temporal bone.  Curving slightly forward and down.
    Ear Canal
  42. Also known as External auditory meatus.
    Ear Canal
  43. Part of the middle ear.  Ear drum. At end of ear canal. vibrates when sound waves strike it.
    • Tympanic membrane
  44. transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the incus bone.
    • Malleous bones
  45. transmit vibrations from the malleous to the stapes
    Incus bone

  46. transmits vibrations from the incus to the oval window of the inner ear
    • Stapes Bone
  47. Permits air to enter/leave the middle ear cavity to equalize pressure on both side of the ear drum.
    • Eustachian tubes
  48. in the cochlea, the hair cells are part of this?
    Organ of corti
  49. receptors of "organ of corti". specialized microvilli.
    Hair cells (stereocilia)
  50. The utricle and saccule are 2 membranous sacs located in an area called this?
    • Vestibule
  51. The hair cells bend in response to the pull of gravity as the position of the head changes.
    Vestibule areas that sense equilibrium.
  52. In each inner ear, there are 3 _______.  Their hair cells bend in response to movement.
    • Semicircular Canal
  53. detect changes in blood pressure and are located in the carotid sinus and aortic sinus.
    Arterial Pressoreceptors
  54. Detect changes in pH, O2, CO2 levels in blood and are located in the carotid body and aortic body.
    Arterial Chemoreceptors
  55. The part of the brain that regulates vital functions.
    Medulla's Role
  56. Secretes hormones which enters capillaries directly and circulation in the blood throughout the body.
    • Endocrine Glands
  57. The cells on which a hormone exerts its specific effects?
    Target Cells.
  58. These cells respond to particular hormones because of the presence of _____ for these hormones often on the cell membrane.
  59. Ductless. No ducts to take their secretions to specific sites.
    Endocrine glands
  60. Stimulates contraction of the uterus at the end of pregnancy and stimulates release of milk from the mammary glands when the baby is nursing.
  61. Secretes its hormones in response to releasing hormones from hypothalamus.
    • Anterior Pituitary Hormones
  62. increase the transport of amino acids into cells and the synthesis of proteins.
    increase the rate of mitosis
    increase the use of fats for energy
    Growth hormone Functions
  63. Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
  64. Stimulate the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxine and T3
    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  65. In women, development of egg cells & secretion of estrogen.
    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
  66. in women causes ovulation and causes ruptured follicle to become corpus luteum and secrete hormone progesterone as well as estrogen.
    Luteinizing hormone (LH)
  67. causes production of milk of mammary glands.
  68. The stimulus for secretion of GH from hypothalamus
    Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
  69. secretion of GH is inhibited by _____ from hypothalamus.
    Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH or Somatostatin)
  70. the endocrine glands of the pancreas. Contains Alpha and Beta Cells.
    Islets of Langerhans
  71. produce hormone glucagon
    Alpha Cells
  72. produce the hormone insulin.
    Beta Cells
  73. Primary target organ is liver. causes liver to convert stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production.  increase  use of fats & amino acids for energy production.
  74. cause liver to change glucose to glycogen to be stored. glycogen also stored in skeletal muscle.  increase intake on amino acids and fatty acids by cells to be used for the synthesis of proteins and fat.
  75. decrease of blood glucose level with this vital hormone.
  76. secretion of insulin is stimulated by this?
  77. secreted in any type of physiological stress situations: diseases, physical injury, hemorrhage, fear/anger, exercise and hunger.
    Cortisol Hormone type
  78. essential first step if tissue repair is to take place.
  79. comes from damaged tissue. "mast cells" make capillaries more permeable and lysosomes of damaged cells release their enzymes, which help break down damaged tissue for easier cleanup by macrophages.
    • Histamine
  80. Direct stimulus for cortisol secretion from anterior pituitary gland in situations of physiological stress.
    Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
  81. secretion of estrogen by the follicle cells of the ovary is stimulated by this.
    Estrogen FSH
  82. a mature ovarian follicle releases an ovum, the follicles becomes this, and begins secreting progesterone in addition to estrogen.
    • progesterone corpus luteum
  83. Corpus luteum is stimulated by _____ from the anterior pituitary gland?
    Progesterone LH
  84. secreted by corpus luteium. helps decrease the secretion of FSH by anterior pituitary gland, and GNRH by hypothalamus.
  85. secreted by sustentacular cells of the testes; the stimulus for secretion is increased testosterone.
    Testosterone Inhibin
  86. produced by pineal gland.  In people this hormone brings about the onset of sleep.
  87. hormone-like substance made by cells from the phospholipids of their cell membranes.
    Prostaglandins (is produced by?)
  88. Blood clotting, pain mechanism, digestive, secretion, reproduction, inflammation, vasodilation, vasoconstriction.
    Functions of Prostaglandins
  89. They don't circulate in the blood to target organs, but rather exert their effects locally where they are produced.
    How Prostaglandins differ from other hormones?
  90. bonds to receptors of cell membrane. then activates the enzyme adenyl cyclase on the inner surface of the cell membrane.
    First messenger - Protein
  91. what is adenyl cyclase synthesize a substance called?
    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP/ cAMP)
  92. Activates the cell's enzymes to bring about response.
    second messenger - cyclic AMP