Clin Path 2

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jill.hinton
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293282
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Clin Path 2
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2015-05-04 19:13:48
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vtht vet tech
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Clin Path 2
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  1. 3 methods of collecting a urinalysis
    • 1. midstream
    • 2. cystocentesis
    • 3. catheter
  2. The good and the bad of midstream collection for urinalysis:
    good:
    bad:
    • good: hopefully get urine
    • bad: epithelial cells that contaminate the sample >bacteria on lips of vulva or prepuse
  3. The good and the bad of cystocentesis.
    good:
    bad:
    • good: urine sample directly from the bladder, free of contamination
    • bad: need restraint, no movement
  4. Good and bad of catheter for urine collection
    good:
    bad:
    • good: urine sample directly from the bladder, free of contamination
    • bad: when inserted will roughen up epithelium of urethra >blood
  5. Nosocomial means:
    Acquired in hospital
  6. A physical exam includes:
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    • 1. Amount
    • 2. Color
    • 3. Clearness/Clarity
    • 4. Odor
    • 5. Specific gravity
  7. Shades of urine
    >red color
    >dark brown/black
    • > poisons or blood
    • > melanoma
  8. Define urochrome in a horse.
    Chemical that oxidizes when exposed to the air and turns urine dark brown
  9. 3 variations of urine clarity
    a.
    b.
    c.
    • a. clear - apple juice, abscence of suspended particles, has color to it
    • b. cloudy - milk - no distinct globs or clumps
    • c. turbid/flocculation >clumps >snow globe
  10. Define refractometer.
    Instrument used to measure specific gravity of urine.
  11. 2 presenting signs of diabetes seen by the owner
    >
    >
    • > polyuria
    • > polydipsia
  12. Animals with _____ have a fixed specific gravity, even with water deprivation, at _____~_____.
    • CIN (chronic interstitial nephritis)
    • >1.008~1.012
  13. Normals for Specific gravity
    Human:
    Dog:
    Cat:
    Cattle:
    Horse:
    Pig:
    • >1.025
    • >1.030
    • >1.035
    • >1.035
    • >1.015
  14. Chemical Strip Exam includes: (at least 5)
    (include seconds)
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5.
    6.
    7.
    8.
    9.
    10.
    • 1. Glucose (30)
    • 2. Bilirubin (30)
    • 3. Ketone (40)
    • 4. Specific gravity (45)
    • 5. Blood (60)
    • 6. pH (60)
    • 7. Protein (60)
    • 8. Uro-bilinogen (60)
    • 9. Nitrite (60)
    • 10. Leukocytes
  15. What is not a toxin?
    • >water
    • >carbohydrates
    • >proteins
    • >fats
  16. What percentage of the glomerulus/kidney  must be damaged before we see an elevated BUN?
    • 70% - 2/3 (kidney)
    • 50% (glomerulus)
  17. Define cystocentesis.
    • Cysto/centesis
    • Bladder / procedure using a sterile needle to aspirate
  18. 2 persistent signs of diabetes seen by owner.
    • polyuria
    • polydipsia
  19. In ______ we have a lack of hydration control; the sodium pump isn't working as it should.
    Chronic Interstitial Nephritis (CIN)
  20. 3 parts to urinalysis:
    • Physical exam
    • chemical exam
    • microscopic exam
  21. 5 things found in normal sediment.
    • epithelial cells
    • bacteria
    • debris
    • artifacts
    • fat droplets
    • sperm
  22. Found abnormally in urine sediment
    • casts
    • bacteria (depending on method of collection)
    • red blood cells (depending on method of collection)
  23. 3 types of casts
    ___ - pathological. glassy, clear looking
    ___ - clear with yellowish color
    ___ - made of debris
    • hyaline cast
    • waxy cast
    • granular cast
  24. Causes of polyuria (_____?)
    • (increased amount of urine)
    • diabete mellitus
    • pyometra
    • diabetes insipidous
    • CIN
    • diuretics
    • cystitis
    • medication
  25. Causes of oliguria (____?)
    • (scant or less than normal amount of urine)
    • Decreased intake of water
    • dehydration
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • fever
  26. The color of urine (_____) and what causes it:
    Colorless to pale-
    darker urine/dark yellow-
    yellow brown/green-
    red wine color-
    bright red-
    dark brown-
    • diabetes mellitus/insipidous, pyometra, increased water intake
    • dehydration, diarrhea, vomit, decreased water intake
    • bile pigments, liver mass in abdomen
    • hemoglobinurea, blood in urine
    • hematuria, important as to when and where
    • normal in a horse once voided, melanoma/cancer
  27. What can cause a low specific gravity?
    • CIN, "fixed" at 1.008 - 1.012
    • lots of water intake
    • pyometra
    • diabetes insipidous
    • hyperadrenocorticism
    • diuretics
    • medicine - steroids
  28. What can cause a high specific gravity?
    • Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)
    • cystitis
    • decreased fluid intake
    • dehydration
    • diarrhea and vomit
    • fever
  29. BUN tests for what and what does it stand for?
    • Blood urea nitrogen
    • kidney function test
  30. 4 things that may cause an elevated BUN
    • high protein diet
    • damage to glomerulus
    • dehydration
    • heart damage
  31. Normal BUN for a dog
    10-20
  32. Two functional parts of the nephron. List and describe.
    • tubule - carries urine from glomerulus to uterus and maintains hydration via the sodium potassium pump
    • Glomerulus - filters toxins from the blood, especially urea
  33. 2 causes for a low BUN
    • technical error
    • parasites
  34. At what percentage of nephron failure must we get before seeing indications of a low BUN?
    60%
  35. What is the creatinine test?
    • Kidney function test that measures the protein produced by metabolism of the muscles
    • creatinine does not fluctuate
  36. Normal creatinine level for a dog
    1-2
  37. Creatinine of 8 indicates what?
    End stage renal failure. At this point recovery is not possible and animal will die
  38. General signs of liver disease
    • weight loss
    • icterus
    • ascites
    • palpate enlarged liver
  39. Causes of liver disease
    • infections
    • toxins
    • nutritional deficiency
    • metabollic diseases
  40. Important liver functions
    • produces B complex vitamins
    • stores glycogen for gluconeogenesis
    • vitamin K production
    • deamination
  41. Describe Icterus
    yellowing of the mucus membranes such as the gums and conjunctiva of the eye
  42. The normal ALT of a dog
    20-80
  43. Elevated SGOT ALT in a horse often due to what?
    Monday morning sickness
  44. Elevated SGOT ALT in a calf often due to what?
    white muscle disease
  45. Test for Diabetes Mellitus?
    Fasting blood glucose
  46. 2 things must always be done to ensure an accurate diabetes mellitus test.
    • Fast for at least 12 hours
    • After drawing blood separate blood from serum in no longer than 30 minutes
  47. Describe the symptoms of a dog with acute pancreatitis.
    • older obese females that eats a lot of table scraps
    • homemade diet with lots of¬† fatty foods and spicy foods
    • garbage can syndrome
  48. Feline Leukemia is what kind of virus?
    Oncoronavirus
  49. What is a retrovirus?
    • RNA virus - "backwards" = retro RNA carries the genetic code and DNA copies it
    • Virus with a reversed transcription
  50. Feline Leukemia ELISA test tests for what?
    antigens
  51. Core protein of FeLV, aka major group-specific antigen.
    p 27
  52. What conditions increase the possibility of FeLV infection becoming pathological?
    • Geriatric
    • Pediatric
    • Immunosuppressed
  53. How is FeLV transmitted
    Saliva via bite or open wound
  54. What is a reticulocyte
    Immature red blood cell that is larger and bluish
  55. What causes a polyuria, pale, colorless urine and a high specific gravity?
    Diabetes Mellitus
  56. A specific gravity of 1.010 may indicate what?
    Chronic Interstitial Nephritis
  57. List normal leukocyte count (WBC) for following:
    dog
    cat
    horse
    cow
    • dog: 10,000 - 12,000
    • cat: 15,000 - 20,000
    • horse: 9,000
    • cow: 8,000
  58. What is a codocyte/leptocyte/target cell?
    Heinz body
  59. Describe a stomatocyte.
    mouth like central pallor
  60. Pre-renal causes of an elevated BUN.
    • high protein diet
    • toxins
    • heart problems - congestive heart failure
  61. Post-renal causes of an elevated BUN
    • Urinary calculi
    • struvite crystals
    • prostatitis
  62. Why would ALT be elevated after surgery?
    Anesthesia is a toxin and the liver filters toxins and stores them. ALT measures liver function
  63. Normal fibrinogen range for dogs and horses.
    100-500
  64. A fibrinogen ratio test is more accurate than the fibrinogen range test because the fibrinogen ratio is not affected by _____________.
    Dehydration
  65. A fibrinogen ratio of ________ is normal.
    1:15 and above
  66. Fibrinogen range of 400 in a dog is __________.
    normal
  67. Fibrinogen ratio of 12 indicates_________.
    inflammation
  68. Normal blood glucose in a dog.
    60 - 100
  69. Why do we do a vaginal cytology
    • problem breeders
    • pre-screening before and breeding
    • silent heat
  70. What is present in proestrus

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