Autonomic Nervous System
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview
The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards
. What would you like to do?
What are the divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
Parasympathetic and sympathetic
Where are the main control centres for the autonomic nervous system located within the CNS?
The hypothalamus and midbrain
What part of the brain can influence but not command the control centres?
In which areas of the nervous system is there a) outflow of parasympathetic innervation b) outflow of sympathetic innervation?
- a) Brain stem and sacral cord level
- b) Thoracolumbar cord level
Describe the arrangement of pre and post synaptic fibres in the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
- Sympathetic - short presynaptic and long postsynaptic
- Parasympathetic - long presynaptic and short postsynaptic
Where are neural cell bodies located for sensory cell bodies, motor striated muscle, and motor nerve cell bodies of the ANS in thoracolumbar and sacral cord?
- Dorsal horn
- Ventral horn
- Intermediate/lateral horn
Where do parasympathetic fibres synapse?
Close to the organ
Which cranial nerves are involved in parasympathetic innervation?
Oculomotor, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus
Which segments of the spinal cord provide parasympathetic innervation to pelvic viscera?
S1, S2 and S3
Where do sympathetic fibres synapse?
Remote from the organ
In the sympathetic supply to the head and neck, preganglionic fibres from T1-5 run cranially in the ....?
Where do the preganglionic fibres in the vagosympathetic trunk synapse?
In the cranial cervical ganglion
Where do the post synaptic fibres of the vagosympathetic trunk run to?
Some follow arteries of the head region and some follow CN IX-XII, vagal nerve branches to the larynx and pharynx
What is the function of fibres in the vagosympathetic trunk?
Innervation of smooth muscle (vascular, ocular and orbital, erector pilae) and glands (sweat, salivary, nasal)
Describe the sympathetic supply to the thoracic viscera
Fibres run cranioventrally from the cervicothoracic ganglion to connect with the vagus at the middle cervical ganglion forming the vagosympathetic trunk
What structure do sympathetic fibres that supply the thoracic viscera pass around to form the Ansa Subclavia?
The subclavian artery
Which nerves give sympathetic innervation to the abdomen and pelvis?
Thoracic and lumbar Splanchinic nerves
With regards to parasympathetic innervation, what are the target organs of CN III?
Ciliary muscles and muscles of the iris
With regards to parasympathetic innervation, what are the target organs of CN VII?
Lacrimal, nasal, palatine, sublingual and mandibular glands
With regards to parasympathetic innervation, what are the target organs of CN IX?
Parotid and orbital salivary glands
With regards to parasympathetic innervation, what are the target organs of CN X?
Parasympathetic supply to neck, thorax and abdomen so majority of body viscera
CN X travels down the neck in the ...?
Which nerves arise from the vagus at the middle cervical ganglion and travel back up the neck?
The recurrent laryngeal nerves
What do the recurrent laryngeal nerves supply?
The trachea and cervical oesophagus
At what location does the vagus nerve split into two branches?
Just after the root of the lung
What is the function of sympathetic innervation of the eye?
Supplies the smooth muscle of the orbit and the iris dilators. This is responsible for protrusion of the eyeball, widening of the palpebral fissure, third eyelid retraction and dilation of pupils.
What is the name of the condition for loss of sympathetic innervation to the head?
List some of the clinical signs of Horner's syndrome
- Pupillary constriction (miosis)
- Prolapse of the third eyelid
- Narrowing of the palpebral fissure
- Enopthalmos (sunken eye)
What reflex can be used to test CN III function? How would you tell if CN III was damaged?
The pupillary light reflex. The pupil would be dilated and unresponsive to light.
What clinical signs regarding the eye are often seen in animals with raised intracranial pressure?
Initial miosis (pupil constriction) and then myadriasis (pupil dilation) as the midbrain swells and there is compression of CN III. Progression from mitotic to mydriatic pupils indicates increasingly severe brain pathology
What type of innervation is predominant during the storing/voiding phase of urination?
- Storing - sympathetic
- Voiding - parasympathetic
Which sympathetic nerve is responsible for relaxation of the detrusor muscle and contraction of smooth muscle of the bladder neck/internal sphincter?
The hypogastric nerve
Which sympathetic nerve is responsible for contraction of the detrusor muscle?
Which nerve is responsible for somatic innervation of the urinary tract? What are its functions?
Pudendal nerve - contraction of the striated sphincter muscles for urinary retention, also innervates the anal sphincter (perineal reflex)
What is 'grass sickness' in horses?
Impaired activity of the gut due to autonomic nervous system damage
What are the three main presentations of grass sickness?
- Acute - severe and sudden onset with 100% mortality within 48hrs
- Subacute - midler clinical signs but most usually die within 7 days
- Chronic - slower onset presenting with rapid weight loss. Some will survive.
What are the causes/risk factors associated with grass sickness?
- Unconfirmed but thought that Clostridium botulinum type C may be involved.
- Risk factors include grazing, pasture disturbance, feed change, grazing previously affected pasture
What is feline dysautonomia?
Widespread dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system
What are some of the clinical signs of feline dysautonomia?
Depression, anorexia, bilateral pupil dilation non-responsive to light, third eyelid protrusion and ptosis, decreased tear and saliva production, megaoesphagus, bradycardia, faecal and urinary incontinence
What is the cause of feline dysautonomia?
The aetiology is unknown
What would you like to do?
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview