a group of similar cells performing a similar function.
Epithelial tissue (epithelium)
covers body surfaces and lines body cavities
binds and supports body parts
moves the body and its parts
receives stimuli and conducts nerve impulses
connective tissue cells are widely separated by this, a noncellular material that varies from solid to semifluid to fluid.
loose fibrous connective tissue
this tissue occurs beneath an epithelium and connects it to other tissues within an organ. it also forms a protective covering for many internal organs such as muscles, blood vessels and nerves.
cells within the firbous connective tissue that produce a matrix that contains fibers, including collagen fibers and elastic fibers.
dense fibrous connective tissue
contains more collagen fibers and they are packed closely together. found in tendons and ligaments
connect muscles to bones
connect bones to other bones at joints
cells lie in small chambers called lucunae, separated by a matirx that is solid but flexible.
the most common cartilage, contains only very fine collagen fibers. the matrix has a white, translucent appearance. found in the nose and the ends of long bones and the ribs.
the most rigid connective tissue. matrix is made of inorganic salts, notably calcium salts,deposited around collagen fibers.
the most common type. consists of cylidrical structure units called osteons. the central canal of each osteon is surrounded by rings of hard matrix.
composed of several types of cells suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma. the plasma is not made up of cells! can also be classified as vascular tissue. blood also transports nutrients and O2 to cells and removes their wastes.
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
small, bioconcave, disc-shaped cells without a nuclei. the present of hemoglobin makes it red in color. hemoglobin combines with oxygen and in this way red blood cells transport oxygen.
White Blood Cells (WBC)
larger than RBC, have a nucleus and without staining would appear translucent. fight infection in two primary ways.
1- some WBC are phagocytic and engulf the infectious pathogens
2- WBC produce antibodies, molecules that combine with foreign substances to inactivate them
not complete cells, fragments of giant cells present only in bone marrow.
muscle tissue (contractile tissue)
they contain contractile protein filaments called actin and myosin filaments that interact to produce movement.
3 types of vetebrate muscle
skeletal, cardiac and smooth
skeletal muscel (voluntary muscle)
attatched by tendons to the ones of the skeleton and when it contracts, bones move
found only in the walls of the heart, and its contraction pumps blood and accounts for the heartbeat.
Autorhythmic and involuntary
lack striations. the spindle-shaped cells form layers in which the tick middle portion of one cell is opposite the thin ends of adjacent cells
appearance due to placement fo actin filaments and myosin filaments in the cell.
coordinates body parts and allows an animal to respond to the environment.
cells that support and nourish neurons
Open Circulartory System
a tubular heart pumps a fluid called hemolymph through a network of channels and cavities in the body. Eventually, hemolymph( a combination of blood and tissue fluid) drains back to the heart.
Closed Circulatory System, cardiovascular system
consists of strong muscular heart and bloodvessels.
has two receiving chambers called ATRIA (atrium) and two pumping chambers called VENTRICLES
The Three kinds of vessels
arteries, veins and capillaries
carry blood away from the heart
exchange materials with tissue fluid
carry blood to the heart
a two circuit circulatory pathway. heart pumps blood to the tissues. O2 rich blood enters the Left Atrium from the lungs and passes into the Left Ventricle. Begins when the LV pumps the blood into the aorta.
the heart pumps blood to the lungs. O2 poor blood from all regions of the body collects in the Right Atrium and then passes into the Right Ventricle. Begins when the RV pumps blood to the lungs via the pulmonary trunk and arteries.
Right Ventricle, RV
pumps blood to the lungs, receives blood from attatched veins ( the venae cavae) that are returning O2 poor blood to the heart from the tissues.
Left Ventricle, LV
larger than the right ventricle, pumps blood to the rest of the body
a double pump because a septum seperates the right from the left side. the septum is complete and prevents oxygen poor blood from mixing with oxygen rich blood
each side of the heart has two chambers. the upper thin-walled chambers are called atria (atrium) and they RECEIVE blood.
the lower chambers, thick walled ventricles. pump blood AWAY from the heart.
the vales between the atria and ventricles . the tricuspid valve is on the right and the bicuspid valve is on the left.
the valves between the ventricles and their attatched vessels, also their cusps look like half moons.
Pulmonary trunk and arteries
after blood is passed through the tricuspid valve, the RV pumps it through the pulmonary similunar valve into the pulmonary trunk and arteries
bring O2 rich blood to the left atrium. after this blood passes through the bicuspid valve, the LV pumps it through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta, which takes it to the tissues.
contraction of the heart
relaxation of the heart
arteries branch into these small arteries just visible to the naked eye and their diameter can be regulated by the nervous system, depending on the needs of the body
Arterioles branch into these, which are extremely narrow, microscopic tubes with a wall composed of only epithelium, often called endothelium because its inside the other layers. RBC's pass through single file.
Venules and Veins
collect blood from the capillary beds and return it to the heart. first the venules drain the blood from the capillary and then they join to form a vein.
begins and ends with capillaries. EX: the hepatic portal takes blood form the intestines to the liver.