Science chapter 8

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  1. Electromagnetic Radiation
    Varying types of electromagnetic waves, from radio waves to gamma rays. Always travel at the speed of light.
  2. Refracting telescope
    Telescope that uses a lens to collect light from an object
  3. Reflecting telescope
    A telescope that uses a mirror to collect the light from an object
  4. Satellite
    An artificial object/Vehicle that orbits a Celestial body. Can also be a celestial body orbiting another of larger size.
  5. Orbiters
    Observatories that orbit the other planets. Usually made to take high resolution pictures not obtainable from Earth.
  6. Solar nebula theory
    The theory that describes how planets and stars formed from spinning contracting discs of dust and gas
  7. Star
    A Celestial body made of superheated hydrogen and helium
  8. Nebula
    A giant cloud of gas and dust, which could be the birthplace of most, if not all, Celestial bodies
  9. Protostar
    The hot condensed object at the center of a nebula
  10. Nuclear fusion
    The process where hydrogen nuclei fuse to form helium nuclei. This is also a process of energy production.
  11. Photosphere
    The sun's surface layer
  12. Sunspot
    Area of strong magnetic fields on the photosphere
  13. Solar wind
    Streams of fast moving charged particles released by the sun into the solar system
  14. Solar flare
    Fast moving charged particles released from the sun that collide with earth's or another celestial body's atmosphere
  15. Importance of the sun
    • Is needed for all life on earth
    • Drive's most processes on earth
    • Powers the windows and ocean currents
    • Provides photosynthesis
  16. Luminosity
    The measure of the total amount of energy a star radiates per second. Measured in joules per second
  17. Absolute magnitude
    A star's magnitude as seen from 32.6 light-years away from Earth
  18. Spectroscope
    An instrument that produces a spectrum from an narrow beam of light, and projects it onto a photographic plate/digital detector
  19. Spectral lines
    Certain wavelengths in a spectrum identified by lines. Spectral lines identify chemical elements.
  20. Hertzsprung – Russell (H–R) diagram
    A graph that compares the properties of stars
  21. Main sequence
    A band of stars on the H–R diagram that runs diagonally from the top–left to the bottom-right. 90% of stars are in the main sequence
  22. White dwarf
    A small, dim, yet very hot star.
  23. Supernova
    A giant explosion where the entire outer parts of a star get blown off
  24. Neutron star
    A star so dense that only neutrons exist in its core
  25. How low mass stars involved
    Nebula, small protostar, red dwarf, Red main sequence star, white dwarf.

    Low mass stars stay as main sequence stars for as long as 100 billion years. When they run out of hydrogen, they become white dwarfs
  26. How intermediate mass stars evolve
    • Nebula, medium protostar, yellow main sequence star, red giant, white dwarf.
    • Intermediate mass stars bring their hydrogen faster than low mass stars, so they only last about 10 billion years. When their hydrogen runs out, they become red giants and eventually white dwarfs
  27. How high mass stars evolve
    • Nebula, large protostar, blue main sequence star, red supergiant, supernova, neutron star or blackhole.
    • High mass stars bring their hydrogen the fastest so they die more quickly and violently. When the star explodes during a supernova, it becomes either neutron star or a black hole. It becomes a black hole when the solar mass is greater than 25 and it becomes a neutron star when the solar mass is between 12 and 15.
  28. Black hole
    The result of the deaths of a star over 25 solar masses. the remnants of the supernova is crushed by gravity and nothing can escape it, not even light.
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Science chapter 8
2015-01-23 19:50:40
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