1.5 what is sensation?

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  1. What is sensation?
    Conscious awareness of a stimulus
  2. What's the linage of how sensation becomes realized?
    Stimulus is picked up by the receptor > receptor sends info down the nerve > nerve sends it up to brain, where it will be interpreted (realized)
  3. 2 types of sensations

  4. Types of sensation ) general: 2 subtypes

  5. Types of sensation ) what are special sensations?
    • Specific environmental stimuli that is picked up by specialized organs
    • *ears, nose, ears
  6. Types of sensation ) what are general sensations?
    • These are sensations that you feel in body or internally within the organs
    • *somatic or visceral
  7. Subtypes of somatic sensations (5)




    • -proprioception
    • *position in space
  8. Subtypes of visceral sensations (2)


    *gas feeling in stomach or stomachs/ heart attack
  9. Subtypes of special sensations




    *these are picked up by specialized organs
  10. What are 4 requirements for sensation


    -AP conduction

    -Translation and cortical processing
  11. Requirements of sensation) Stimulus
    It can be from inside or outside

    • *inside: lack of heart leading to heart attack
    • *outside: touching something hot
  12. Requirements of sensation) receptor
    Protein in the membrane of a nerve or special cells that detects and converts stimulus to AP or GP
  13. Requirements of sensation) what does detecting and converting stimulus lead to?
    Converting = Transduction
  14. Requirements of sensation) AP conduction
    AP that was conducted travels up the sensory nerves to spinal cord and then brain
  15. Requirements of sensation) translation and cortical processing
    Occurs in the brain so we can realized the sensation
  16. Perceptual processing at the cortical level involves... (5)
    -detecting the stimulus

    -detecting how intense the stimulus is

    -identify the site or pattern of the stimulus

    -recognition of a pattern

    -distinguish features and qualities
  17. Perceptual processing at the cortical level involves) detecting the stimulus
    • Perceptual detection
    • *what is it? Pen or pencil?
  18. Perceptual processing at the cortical level involves) detecting how intense the stimulus is
    • Magnitude estimation
    • *train whistle
    • **if its low, then it must be far; if its loud, then it must be close
  19. Perceptual processing at the cortical level involves) identify the site or pattern of the stimulus
    • Spatial discrimination
    • *braille language
  20. Perceptual processing at the cortical level involves) recognition of a pattern
    Ex) brain interpreting music as a whole sound instead of single individual music notes
  21. Perceptual processing at the cortical level involves) distinguish features and qualities
    • Ex) smooth vs rough
    • *Ice cream is smooth, cold, sweet, creamy
    • *tomato soup is smooth, hot, bitter, creamy
    • **helps us distinguish the little things that make things
  22. What are the 5 types of receptors?




  23. Mechanoreceptors
    • Responds to Mechanical pressure
    • *somebody touches you
  24. Photoreceptors
    Responds to Light stimulation
  25. thermoreceptors
    • Responds to change in temperature
    • *touch hot stove or ice cube
  26. Nociceptors
    Respond to pain transmission
  27. Chemoreceptors
    Respond to chemicals
  28. exteroceptors
    Receptors located in skin
  29. Interceptors
    Receptors located in viscera (internal organs)
  30. Proprioceptors
    Receptors located in joints and muscles
  31. 2 types of Proprioceptors

  32. Tonic
    • Fire off action potential constantly
    • Ex) Will fire APs to let you know that you have your arm extended out
    • *lets you maintain knowledge where your limb is in space
  33. Phasic
    • Fires off AP when joint changes position
    • *fires AP when you move your outstretched arm to over your head as you are moving
  34. Free nerve endings are...
    Sensory nerves
  35. Pain releases which 2 chemicals
    • bradykinin and Potassium
    • *nerves will respond to these chemicals then fire off AP that will eventually reach the CNS
  36. What chemical does itch release?>
  37. Not all nerve endings respond to all sensations
  38. Free nerve endings) Temperature
    Respond to a change in hot or cold temps
  39. Free nerve endings) extreme temp or pain receptors
    • Will respond to burn or frostbite
    • *interpreted as pain
  40. free nerve endings that respond to cold and warm, which are there more?
    • Nerve endings that detect cold
    • *they are also located superior to the nerve endings that detect warm
  41. Where are Merkels disks located
    Deep epidermis near dermal papillae
  42. What do Merkel disks respond to (2)
    -2 pt discrimination

    -light touch pressure
  43. Where are Merkel disks more numerous in?
    Hairy skin
  44. What are hair follicle receptors
    • Responds to movements of the hair follicles
    • *ex) insect crawling will activate these
  45. Encapsulated nerve endings ) meissners corpuscles : function (2)
    -2 pt discrimination

    -low frequency vibration
  46. Encapsulated nerve endings ) meissners corpuscles : where can these be found more?
    • More numerous in hairless skin
    • *soles and palms
  47. Encapsulated nerve endings ) meissners corpuscles : where are they located?
    Just below the epidermis
  48. Encapsulated nerve endings ) pacinian corpuscles : respond to (3)
    - deep pressure


  49. After receptor cell is stimulated...
    Stimulus is transcend by receptor protein and sensory information is relayed to CNS
  50. Faster afferent transmission for ...
    • Superficial pain
    • *extreoceptors
    • **hands or skin
    • ***they are myelinated thin
  51. Slower afferent transmission for
    • Visceral pain
    • *interoceptors
    • **typically are unmyelinated
  52. proprioceptive organs) what does the Golgi tendon organ?
    Stretching of Golgi tendon organ causes relaxation of affected muscle and contraction of antagonistic muscle so that the muscle being stretch does not get damaged
  53. proprioceptive organs) what does muscle spindle do?
    Stretching of muscle causes contraction of affected muscle and relaxation of antagonistic muscle
  54. How big is the olfactory epithelium?
    5 cm^2
  55. What does the dendritic end of CN I contain and what do those contain?
    It contains olfactory hairs and the hairs contain receptor proteins
  56. What do the basal cells do? (2)
    Replace receptors and CN I
  57. With what do the mitral cell bodies interact with?
    Synapse with axons from CN I
  58. What is olfactory tract made up off?
    Mitral cell axons
  59. What occurs to the odor molecules?
    They dissolve in moist mucus of sloughed on the olfactory epithelium
  60. What if the odor molecules do not dissolve?
    Then we won't be able to detect it
  61. How does transduction occur in physiology of smell?
    Dissolved molecules bind with olfactory receptor which opens NA, CA, CL channels leading to depolarize
  62. Where does the AP of smell travel to?
    Olfactory cortex and other limbic areas
  63. What do the inhibitory cells of smell do?
    • -they inhibit all but strongest impulses
    • *located in bulb

    **ignore other scents and only concentrate on the cookie smell you are following
  64. Does the filiform contain taste buds?
    No taste buds
  65. What is filiform used for?
    Used to provide a rough surface to pick up slippery foods so they won't slip away
  66. What causes black hairy tongue disease?
    Overgrowth of filiform Papillae
  67. 2 types of gustatory cells

  68. Gustatory cells ) supporting function (3)
    -cleans up extra NT that might have leaked out of synapse bw receptor cell and CN

    -involved in structural integrity

    -nutrition & waste removal
  69. Gustatory cells ) receptor
    Does transduction of particular taste
  70. Taste buds cells) what do basal cells do?
    • -replaces gustatory cells
    • *they only live 7-10 days
  71. What are the 5 basic tastes?




  72. Physiology of taste) first steps (2)
    -Molecules of food dissolve in saliva

    -saliva goes through the crevices of Papillae and comes in contact with taste buds
  73. What is a taste pore?
    • A pore at the entrance of taste buds
    • *gustatory hairs stick out here to articulate with saliva
  74. Physiology of taste) transduction
    Molecules from the food bind with receptor proteins in gustatory cell membranes and results in depolarization
  75. Physiology of taste) Salty (3)
    -food interacts with receptor

    -sodium goes in producing depolarization of cell

    -depolarization results in a NT being sent from Gustatory cell to synapse in CN
  76. Physiology of taste) Sour (3)
    -hydrogen enters the cell

    -leads to NA and CA voltage gated channels to open

    -depolarization occurs and causes migration of synaptic testicles & exocytosis of NT, which crosses the synapse to bind with CN
  77. Physiology of taste) Bitter, sweet, UNami (3)
    -food molecules interact with receptor

    -activates G-protein mechanism which increases intracellular calcium levels, which then opens NA voltage channel that leads to depolazation as NA flows in

    -also releases NT to CN
  78. Depolarize gustatory cells release NT which..
    Depolarize the synapsing sensory nerves
  79. Neural pathways of taste) where do the 3 nerves that innervates the tongue send info to?
    Medulla and thalamus
  80. Neural pathways of taste) medulla function (2)
    -triggers salivation and gastric juices

    -also receives signals from 3 nerves
  81. Neural pathways of taste) where does medulla and  thalamus send signals? (2)
    -taste cortex primary interpretation and

    • -limbic system (emotion)
    • *it taste good
    • **reminds me of my mom cooking
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1.5 what is sensation?
2015-01-20 01:44:58

What is sensation?
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