Unit 1 Intro to Pathology

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CoLinRadTechss
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Unit 1 Intro to Pathology
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2015-01-20 15:44:11
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Unit 1 Into to Pathology
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  1. Any abnormal change in the function or structure of the body as a result of some type of injury
    Disease
  2. the study of disease processes
    pathology
  3. sequence of events producing cellular changes that lead to observable changes known as manifestations
    pathogenesis
  4. how a disease presents itself
    manifestation
  5. The patient's perception of the disease that has subjective manifestations
    symptom
  6. an objective manifestation that can be detected by the physician during examination
    sign
  7. a group of signs and symptoms that characterizes a specific abnormal disturbances
    syndrome
  8. the study of the cause of a disease
    etiology
  9. no cause for disease can be identified
    idiopathic disease
  10. disease that is acquired from the environment of the hospital
    nosocomial disease
  11. adverse responses that occur from medical treatment itself
    iatrogenic disease
  12. a disease that has a quick onset and lasts a short period of time
    acute disease
  13. a disease that occurs more slowly and lasts a very long time
    chronic disease
  14. name of the disease
    diagnosis
  15. the prediction of the course and outcome of the disease
    prognosis
  16. lasting side effects from having an acute illness
    sequelae
  17. the structure of cells or tissue
    morphology
  18. a disease process in which there is decrease in body tissue density
    destructive, lytic, subtractive
  19. body tissue is altered by increasing the normal tissue density
    additive, sclerotic
  20. investigation of disease in large groups
    epidemiology
  21. the number of cases of a disease found in a given population
    prevalence
  22. the number of new cases of a disease found in a given time period
    incidence
  23. diseases of high prevalence in an area where a given causative organism is commonly found
    endemic
  24. excessive prevalence or an outbreak of disease in the same geographical area
    epidemic
  25. a widespread epidemic, that is, a disease or outbreak that affects very high proportions of the populations throughout the world.
    pandemic
  26. the number of deaths caused by a particular disease averaged over a population
    mortality rate
  27. the incidence of sickness sufficient to interfere with an individuals normal daily routine
    morbidity rate
  28. tracks, monitors, and reports trends in health and aging.
    responsible for trending morbidity rate.
    • center for disease control and prevention
    • CDC
  29. collects death certificates from each state and publishes information on mortality statistics and trends
    • national center for health statistics
    • NCHS
  30. monitors and reports mortality rates in terms of leasing cause of death, according to sex, race, age, and specific causes of death such as heart disease or breast cancer
    NCHS and DHHS (Dept. of health and human services)
  31. an international coding system or standard diagnostic classification system used to report causes of death
    -classify diseases and other health problems
    ICD-10
  32. Leading causes of death in the U.S
    • Chronic diseases:
    • heart disease and malignant neoplasms
  33. over the past nine years,mortality rates for cancer, heart disease and HIV have
    declined
  34. mortality rates for diabetes mellitus and Alzheimers has
    risen
  35. ages 1-44 leading cause of death
    injury
  36. the total value of goods and services produced in a country over a period of time
    gross domestic product
  37. goals of the human genome project (1990-2003)
    • identify all 20,000 to 25,000 genes in human dna
    • determine sequences of the three billion chemical base pairs in dna
    • store info in data bases
    • transfer relates technologies to the private sector
    • address the ethical, legal, and social issues of the project
  38. generalized decrease in cell size
    atrophy
  39. generalized increase in cell size
    hypertrophy
  40. absence of tumor cell differentiation, loss of cellular organization
    anaplasia
  41. an increase in the number of cells in tissues as a result of excessive proliferation
    hyperplasia
  42. conversion of one cell type into another cell type that is not normal for that tissue
    metaplasia
  43. abnormal changes of mature cells
    dysplasia
  44. six disease classifications
    • congenital and hereditary
    • inflammatory
    • degenerative
    • metabolic
    • traumatic
    • neoplastic
  45. present at birth
    -genetic or environmental causes
    congenital
  46. developmental disorders passed down from parents and acestors
    hereditary
  47. results from the body's reaction to a localized injurious agents
    inflammatory disease
  48. three types of inflammatory diseases
    • infective
    • toxic
    • allergic
  49. from invasion by microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria or fungi
    infective disease
  50. results from poisoning by biologic substances
    toxic disease
  51. are an overreaction of the body's own defenses
    allergic disease
  52. antibodies are formed and act against and injure the patients own tissues
    • autoimmune disorders
    • lupus, rheumatoid arthritis
  53. red skin
    rubor
  54. swelling
    edema
  55. heat at site
    calor
  56. pain
    dolor
  57. removal of dead cells and materials
    debridement
  58. an inflammatory process caused by a disease causing organism
    infection
  59. inflammation cannot occur without
    infection
  60. refers to the ease with which and organism can overcome the body's defenses
    virulence
  61. the function or structure of the tissue deteriorates
    degenerative
  62. the physiologic processes reach a peak, and gradually fade until the body cant survive
    aging process
  63. factors affecting the aging process
    • heredity
    • diet
    • environmental
  64. diseases common with aging
    • atherosclerosis
    • osteoporosis
    • osteoarthirits
  65. disease caused by a disturbance of the normal physiologic function of the body
    metabolic disease
  66. the sum of all physical and chemical processes in the body
    metabolism
  67. metabolic functions are regulated by
    hormones secreted by endocrine glands
  68. the most common disturbance of fluid balance
    insufficient intake of water or excessive loss of water
    dehydration
  69. caused by mechanical factors, effects of ionizing radiation, or extreme hot or cold temperatures
    traumatic disease
  70. an injury of soft parts associated with rupture of the skin
    wound
  71. bleeding into the tissue spaces as a result of capillary rupture
    bruise or contusion
  72. caused by alterations in cell growth, resulting in new abnormal tissue growth
    neoplasm, tumor
  73. do not necessarily become malignant but can be life threatening
    remain localized and are generally noninvasive
    benign neoplasm
  74. continue to grow, spread, and invade other tissues
    -exhibits loss of control of both cell proliferation and cell differentiation, changing its functional capabilites
    malignant neoplasm
  75. a general term denoting various types of malignant neoplasms
    cancer
  76. refers to the process of cellular specialization
    -difference between new cells and original cells is small
    -low probability of malignancy
    differentiated
  77. cells have atypical characteristics and have a high probability of malignancy
    undifferentiated
  78. affecting blood and lymph
    hematologic
  79. the spread of cancer cells
    metasesis
  80. the spreading of cancer cells by the blood system
    hematogenous spread
  81. the spreading of cancer cells by the lymphatic systems
    lymphatic spread
  82. the lymph node the primary neoplasm drains
    sentinel node
  83. the spreading of cancer cells into the surrounding tissues because of close proximity of the area
    invasion
  84. cancer cells travel to a distant site or distant organ system
    seeding
  85. the many types of cellular change that can occur in response to disease
    lesion
  86. one type of cancer and is derived from epithelial tissue, not the same as the general term cancer
    carcinoma
  87. a cancer which arises from connective tissues
    sarcoma
  88. cancer that arises from blood cells
    leukemia
  89. cancer that arises from lymphatic cells
    lymphomas
  90. adeno
    gland
  91. angio
    vascular
  92. chondro
    cartilage
  93. fibro
    fibrous tissue
  94. hemangio
    blood vessel
  95. lipo
    adipose tissue
  96. myo
    muscle
  97. neuro
    nerve
  98. osteo
    bone
  99. treatment allows the patient to remain free of disease for five years or more
    curative
  100. treatment that is designed to relieve pain when curing is not possible
    palliative
  101. a classification used to determine the appropriate treatment of cancer and to help in determining prognosis
    TNM system
  102. T stands for and is measured how
    • size of the untreated primary cancer
    • T0-T4
  103. N stands for and is measured how
    • lymph node involvement
    • N0-N3
  104. M stands for and is measured how
    • distant metastasis
    • M0-M1

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