Eng Bio Chemistry of Life Notes

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Eng Bio Chemistry of Life Notes
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2015-01-20 19:23:20
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Exam 1 Prep. First Note Set
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  1. Define Biology
    The study of life
  2. Define life
    entities that are self replicating, capture energy from their environment, and adapt to changes in their environment
  3. If something is alive it can

    A) None of these answers
    B) adapt to changes in its environment
    C) All of these answers
    D) capture energy from its environment
    E) self replicate
    C) All of these answers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Are crystals considered alive? Why or why not?
    No. They grow but cannot adapt.
  5. True or False: Living organisms have adapted to all of the following conditions:

    •High salt environments

    •Cold environments

    •Ice

    •High sulfur environments

    •High temperature

    •Low oxygen

    •No oxygen
    True
  6. Name for basic building blocks of life.
    • 1) Sugars
    • 2) Carbohydrates
    • 3) Lipids
    • 4) Proteins
  7. What is typically used for the transfer of energy in cells?

    A) ATP
    B) Mitochondria
    C) DNA
    D) RNA
    A) ATP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. True or False: Living systems are studied at many levels including nonliving atoms and small molecules.
    True. Nonliving atoms and small molecules are covered in chapter 1 of our book.
  9. True of False: Six atoms out of the entire periodic table make up approximately 98 percent of the mass of all living systems.
    True
  10. Which six atoms make up approximately 98 percent of the mass of all living systems?
    • 1) Hydrogen (H)
    • 2) Carbon (C)
    • 3) Nitrogen (N)
    • 4) Oxygen (O)
    • 5) Phosphorus (P)
    • 6) Sulfur (S)
  11. True or False: The major atomic components of living systems are major components of the Earths Crust.
    False
  12. True or False: H, C, N, O, P, and S are the atomic components of sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids.
    True
  13. The nucleus of an atom

    A) has a negative charge caused by the protons
    B) has no charge because the protons and electrons balance each other out
    C) has a positive charge caused by the neutrons
    D) has a positive charge caused by the protons
    E) has a negative charge caused by the neutrons
    D) has a positive charge caused by the protons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Protons have a charge of 

    A) 1.60 x 10-19 Coulombs
    B) 1.60 x 1019 Coulombs
    C) -1.60 x 10-19 Coulombs
    D) -1.60 x 1019 Coulombs
    A) 1.60 x 10-19 Coulombs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Electrons have a charge of

    A) -1.60 x 1019 Coulombs
    B) -1.60 x 10-19 Coulombs
    C) 1.60 x 1019 Coulombs
    D) 1.60 x 10-19 Coulombs
    B) -1.60 x 10-19 Coulombs
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Protons and neutrons have

    A) different masses
    B) different charges of the same magintude
    C) the same charge
    D) the same mass
    D) the same mass
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Protons and electrons

    A) have the same mass
    B) have the same charge
    C) are both located in the nucleus
    D) have different charges of the same magintude
    D) have different charges of the same magintude
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. The mass of a proton or neutron is

    A) 1.67 x 10-24 g
    B) 1.67 x 1024 g
    C) 1.67 x 1048 g
    D) 1.67 x 10-48 g
    A) 1.67 x 10-24 g
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. True or false: Electrons have a mass which is considered negligible compared to protons and neutrons.
    True. Their mass is 9.1 x 10-28 g
  20. True or False: The electron cloud is the most dense part of an atom.
    False. The nucleus is the most dense part of an atom.
  21. True or False: In order to balance charge in an atom, there needs to be significantly more electrons to compensate for the larger protons.
    False. Number of protons = number of electrons in an atom to balance charge. They have opposite charges of the same magnitude.
  22. Define Element
    Each of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically interconverted or broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter. Each element is distinguished by its atomic number, i.e., the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms.
  23. Define Atomic Number
    The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, which determines the chemical properties of an element and its place in the periodic table.
  24. Define Atomic Mass
    The mass of an atom of a chemical element expressed in atomic mass units. It is approximately equivalent to the number of protons and neutrons in the atom (the mass number) or to the average number allowing for the relative abundances of different isotopes.
  25. Define Isotope
    Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element.
  26. Define Mol
    The base unit of amount of pure substance in the International System of Units that contains the same number of elementary entities as there are atoms in exactly 12 grams of the isotope carbon 12.

    6.02 x 1023 atoms
  27. True or False: Energy changes constantly in an electron orbital.
    False. Energy is constant in an electron orbital
  28. Larger orbitals have

    A) the same amount of energy as the smaller orbitals
    B) higher energy
    C) lower energy
    B) higher energy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. True or False: For all elements, electrons fill in the lowest energy electron orbitals first. The outermost orbital may be partially full.
    True
  30. Valence is

    A) the number of electrons in the outermost shell
    B) the number of electrons in the most filled shell
    C) the number of electrons in the nucleus
    D) the number of electrons in the innermost shell
    A) the number of electrons in the outermost shell
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. True or False: Protons are responsible for the combining capacity of the atoms (ionic and covalent bonds).
    False. Valence electrons are responsible for the combining capacity of the atoms (ionic and covalent bonds).
  32. How many valence electrons does hydrogen have?

    A) 2
    B) 4
    C) 1
    D) 3
    C) 1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. How many valence electrons does carbon have?

    A) 3
    B) 4
    C) 1
    D) 2
    B) 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. How many valence electrons does nitrogen have?

    A) 7
    B) 4
    C) 5
    D) 6
    C) 5
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. How many valence electrons does oxygen have?

    A) 6
    B) 7
    C) 4
    D) 5
    A) 6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. How many valence electrons does phosphorous have?

    A) 4
    B) 7
    C) 6
    D) 5
    D) 5
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. How many valence electrons does sulfur have?

    A) 5
    B) 4
    C) 6
    D) 7
    C) 6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. True or False: A covalent bond forms when two orbitals each containing 1 electron merge due to the attraction of the electrons to the protons
    True. They share electrons.
  39. Define Molecule
    The smallest possible amount of a particular substance that has all the characteristics of that substance. 2 or more atoms bonded together.
  40. What freedom does a molecule lose when it has a double bond as opposed to a single bond?
    The freedom to rotate.
  41. True or False: Triple bonds are highly common in biological systems.
    False.
  42. Which covalent bond requires the most energy to break?

    A) C--O
    B) C==O
    C) O--H
    D) N--O
    B) C==O
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. Which covalent bond requires the least energy to break?

    A) O--H
    B) C--O
    C) N--O
    D) C==O
    C) N--O
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. True or False: The bond between the hydrogen atoms and the carbon atom in H2O is an example of a polar covalent bond.
    True.
  45. Cations are

    A) ions with a positive charge
    B) ions with a negative charge
    C) regular molecules
    D) ions with no charge
    A) ions with a positive charge
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. Anions are

    A) ions with no charge
    B) ions with a positive charge
    C) regular molecules
    D) ions with a negative charge
    D) ions with a negative charge
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Define Hydrogen Bond
    An electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen atom in one polar molecule (as of water) and a small electronegative atom (as of oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine) in usually another molecule of the same or a different polar substance
  48. Describe the effect of van der Waals forces in water.
    Water molecules in liquid water are attracted to each other by electrostatic forces
  49. What is the pH of water at 25 degrees celsius?

    A) 1
    B) 7
    C) 10
    D) 14
    B) 7
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. True or False: Enzymes increase the activation energy of a reaction.
    False
  51. Enzymes change

    A) the  of a reaction
    B) the activation energy of a reaction
    C) none of these
    D) the equilibrium of a reaction
    B) the activation energy of a reaction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. What is the purpose of DNA polymerase?
    It makes new DNA.
  53. What is the purpose of lactase?
    It breaks down lactose (glucose, galactose).
  54. What is the purpose of salivary amylase?
    It breaks down starch in mouth.
  55. Which factors effect enzymes?

    A) Temperature
    B) Inhibitors
    C) Cofactors
    D) pH
    E) All of these
    E) All of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. What is the equation for pH?

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