Unit 1 Intro to Radiobiology

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Unit 1 Intro to Radiobiology
2015-01-20 20:53:38
Radiation Biology
Radiation Biology
Unit 1 Intro to Radiobiology
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  1. the branch of science concerned with the effects of ionizing radiation on living systems
  2. list the four components of the cell theory
    • 1. a cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms
    • 2.the activity of a organism is dependent on both the individual and collective activities of its cells
    • 3. cells are determined and made possible by the specific subcellular structures of cells
    • 4. the continuity of life has a cellular basis
  3. smallest unit of protoplasm capable of independent existence.
    the basic unit of any living organism.
  4. group of cells with the same function
  5. groups of tissues that work together to perform a specialized function
  6. group of organs that work together to perform a common function
  7. systems grouped together
  8. any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
    organic compound
  9. four major classes of organic compounds
    • protein
    • carbohydrate
    • nucleic acid
    • lipid
  10. basic building blocks of cells
    ex. insulin, albumin, hemoglobin, enzymes
    composed of amino acids
  11. provide energy necessary for cellular functions
    ex. starch, glycogen, lactose, sucrose
    composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    carbohydrates aka saccharides
  12. contains genetic materials
    controls cell division and multiplication and biochemical reactions that occur within the living cell
    composed of sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous bases, hydrogen
    DNA (nucleic acid)
  13. role in protein synthesis
    composed of sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous bases
    RNA (nucleic acid)
  14. structural parts of cell membranes.
    act as reservoirs for long term storage of energy
    insulate and guard the body against the environment
    support and protect organs
    provide essential substances necessary for growth and development
    lubricate the joints
    assist in the digestive process
    lipids aka fats
  15. the protoplasm that exists outside the cells nucleus. makes up the majority of the cell and contains large amounts of all the cells molecular components with the exception of DNA
  16. building up
  17. breaking down
  18. contains genetic information
    directs all cellular functions
  19. specialized structures within the cell performing specific functions
  20. monitors exchanges between cell and environment
    location: cytoplasm
    cell membrane
  21. enables the cell to communicate with the extra cellular environment and transfer food and molecules from one part of the cell to another
    -located in cytoplasm
    endoplasmic reticulum
  22. rough ER contains
  23. controls protein synthesis
    contains uracil
    location:cytoplasm and nucleus
  24. carries a code of DNA to a ribosome where it is transferred to tRNA
  25. searches the cytoplasm for the amino acid and carries it to the ribosome for protein synthesis
  26. exists only in ribosomes
    assist in the linking of mRNA to the ribosome
    to facilitate protein synthesis
    ribosomal RNA
  27. manufacture the various proteins that cells require using the blueprints provided by mRNA
  28. produce energy by oxidizing carbohydrates and lipids
    major energy production center; aerobic respiration
    location: cytoplasm
  29. a protein that encourages a biochemical reaction
    • enzymes
    • organisms could not function without enzymes
  30. contains enzymes capable of breaking down proteins and carbohydrates and destroying the cell
    location: cytoplasm
  31. concentration and segregation of products for secretion; carbohydrate synthesis
    location: cytoplasm
    golgi complex
  32. separation of nucleus and cytoplasm. permits selective passage of molecules from nucleus to cytoplasm and vice versa
    nuclear membrane
  33. manufactures and holds large amounts of RNA
  34. directs all cellular activity 
    contains genetic info in code form
    contains nitrogenous bases
    location: nucleus
  35. Four nitrogenous bases
    • purines: adenine and guanine
    • pyrimidines: thymine and cytosine
  36. bases bond to each other through
    hydrogen bonds
  37. bases bond to sugar molecules on
    side rails
  38. a structural component or building block of DNA and RNA
    consists of a base + a molecule of sugar+ phosphoric acid
  39. directs cellular activities
    contains DNA
    functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring
    location: nucleus
  40. directs cellular activities
    contains genes
  41. the number of chromosomes in somatic cells
  42. the number of chromosomes in a normal somatic cells for a given species
    2n diploid
  43. human somatic cells have how many pairs of chromosomes
  44. the number of chromosomes in a sperm of egg cell
  45. refers to the number of chromosomes in a normal germ cell for a specific species
    2n haploid
  46. two types of cellular division
    • mitosis
    • meiosis
  47. multiplication process where one cell divides and forms two or more cells
    cell division
  48. a parent cell divides to form two daughter cells identical to the parent cell
    mitosis (M)
  49. period of cell growth that occurs before mitosis
    contains three intervals: G1, S, G2.
  50. the first phase of cell division
    nucleus enlarges
    DNA complex coils up tightly
    chromatids become visible attached at the centromere
    spindle fibers appear
  51. Nucleolus and nucleus membrane disappear
    spindle fibers attach to chromatid
    chromatids align on the equatorial plate
  52. centromeres migrate in opposite directions
    furrow appears
  53. nuclear membrane and both nuclei appear
    chromatids uncoil
    cytoplasm and organelles divide equally
    cell division is complete
  54. cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell to half the number of chromosomes in the parent cell
  55. doubling the amount of genetic material
  56. a mature reproductive cell capable of function in fertilization or conjugation
  57. oogonium
    female (egg)
  58. spermatogonium
    male (sperm)
  59. does not include chromosomal replication
    meiosis II
  60. in general, cell are most            in late M and G2 phases, and most               in late S
    • radiosensitive
    • resistant
  61. invented the diode tube with a partial vacuum, which Roentgen was using when he discovered xray.
    William Crookes
  62. produced the first radiography. this was a shadow of coins on a photographic plate. he did not know what had caused the shadow
    Author Willis Goodspeed (1890)
  63. discovered xrays
    Wilhem Roentgen (1895)
  64. found that uranium emitted rays that passes through paper and darkened photographic film
    henri becquerel (1896)
  65. announced the discovery of radium, which also emitted penetrating rays.             applied the term radioactivity to the behavior of these materials
    Marie and Pierre Curie (1898)
  66. noticed a skin reaction induced by radium he had been carrying in a tube in his vest pocket
  67. deliberately exposed a small area of skin to radium and observed effects
    pierre curie
  68. began experimental radiobiology by exposing rabbits testes to xrays and documenting efffects
    J. Bergonie and Tribondeau (1906)
  69. the radiosensitivity of cells is directly proportional to their reproductive activity and inversely proportional to the differntiation
    law of Bergonie and Tribondeau
  70. Laid the groundwork for modern radiotherapy by placing the principle of fractionation on a firm clinical basis
    henri coutard (1932)
  71. invented the cyclotron, a machine capable of accelerating charged particles to very high speeds. these charged particles were used as bullets and shot into the nuclei of target atoms to study the nuclear structure. used today to produce nucleotides for nuclear medicine studies.
    E. O. Lawrence
  72. studied indirect effects of ionizing radiation
    H. Ficke and  D. E. Lea
  73. discovered that oxygen increases the effects of ionzing radiation on living matter (oxygen effect)
    Thoday and Read (1947)
  74. studied both indirect effect and oxygen effect on radiation
    L H Gray (1953)
  75. produced the first successful culture of mammalian cells in artifical media (hela cells). exposed these cells to radiation in vitro and plotted cell survival curve
    Puck and Associates (1956)
  76. showed that cells can sometimes recover from sublethal doses of radiation
    Elkind (1950s)
  77. chemical building materials for all living things
    reception and processing of food and oxygen
    elimination of waste products
  78. compounds that do not contain carbon
    most important are                
    • inorganic compounds
    • water and mineral salts
  79. molecule consisting of large number of atoms