Fluids & Electrolytes

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Fluids & Electrolytes
2015-01-20 21:07:47
First exam

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  1. common causes of dehydration
    hemorrage, diarrhea, vomiting, prolonged NPO, fistulas, ileostomy, profuse diaphoresis, burns, diuretics, gi suction, hyperventilation, impaired thirst, fever
  2. common cause of fluid volume excess
    excessive fluid replacement, late renal failure, heart failure, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, long term corticosteroid therapy
  3. interventions for fluid deficit
    IV fluids, promote oral fluids, offer snacks, stop diurectic if applicable, pad bony prominences
  4. s/s of fluid overload
    increased pulse rate, bounding pulse, increased BP, distended neck veins, weight gain, increased respiratory rate, pitting edema, skin pale and cool to touch, increased motility
  5. common causes of hyponatremia
    excessive diaphoresis, diuretics, renal disease, NPO
  6. common causes of hypernatremia
    hyperaldosteronism, renal failure, corticosteroids, Cushings, dehydration,
  7. common causes of hypokalemia
    diuretics, diarrhea, vomiting, prolonged ng suction, Renal disease, NPO
  8. s/s of hypokalemia
    respiratory changes, skeletal muscle weakness, weak hand graspa and deep tendon reflexes, thready and weak pulse, dysrhythmia, orthostatic hypotension, anxiety, decreased gastric motility, abdominal distention, lethargy, confusion
  9. interventions for hypokalemia
    potassium IV- 5 to 10 mEq/hr, give oral potassium with food, d/c loop diuretic-- potassium sparing diuretic, eat foods high in potassium
  10. common causes of hyperkalemia
    salt substitutes, blood transfusion, renal failure, potassium sparing diuretics, over-ingestion of potassium rich foods
  11. common causes of hypocalcemia (level below 9.0mg/dl)
    kidney disease, lactose intolerance, diarrhea, Crohn's or celiac disease, orthopaedic surgery, thyroidectomy
  12. interventions for hypocalcemia
    seizure precautions, high calcium diet, oral & IV calcium replacement,
  13. s/s of hypocalcemia
    muscle spasm, paresthesia, tetany, Trousseau's sign- positive palmar flecion with BP cuff inflated, and Chvostek's sign, HR and ECG changes, abdominal cramping, decreased bone density--increased risk for fracture
  14. common causes of hypercalcemia (above 10.5mg/dl)